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Table 2 Test and biomarker performance in identifying tuberculosis. % (95% CI)

From: Pulmonary tuberculosis screening in anti-retroviral treated adults living with HIV in Kenya

Test (n = 382) Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV AUROC (95% CI) Youden’s index
Any TB symptom 0 (0–52) 87 (84–91) 0 (0–7) 99 (97–100) 0.436 (0.419–0.453)  
GeneXpert 20 (1–72) 99 (98–100) 25 (1–81) 99 (97–100) 0.596 (0.400–0.792)  
TST, induration      0.629 (0.244–1.00)  
  ≥ 5 mm 50 (7–93) 79 (74–83) 3 (0–10) 99 (97–100)   
  ≥ 10 mm 50 (7–93) 89 (85–92) 5 (1–18) 99 (98–100)   
CRP      0.683 (0.355–1.00)  
  > 3.3 mg/L 80 (28–100) 72 (67–76) 4 (1–9) 100 (98–100)   0.518
  > 5 mg/L 40 (5–85) 79 (75–83) 3 (0.3–9) 99 (97–100)   0.193
  > 8 mg/L 40 (5–85) 89 (85–92) 4 (1–15) 99 (97–100)   0.286
  > 10 mg/L 20 (1–72) 90 (86–93) 3 (0–14) 99 (97–100)   0.099
Hemoglobin      0.352 (0.027–0.676)  
  < 8 g/dL 0 (0–52) 94 (91–96) 0 (0–15) 99 (97–100)   −0.064
  < 10 g/dL 60 (15–95) 86 (82–89) 6 (1–16) 99 (98–100)   0.458
  < 15.3 g/dL 80 (28–100) 12 (9–16) 1 (0–3) 98 (88–100)   0.082
MLR (n = 362)      0.449 (0.141–0.757)  
  > 0.208 40 (5–85) 81 (76–85) 3 (0–10) 99 (97–100)   0.207
  ≥ 0.285 0 (0–52) 94 (91–96) 0 (0–16) 99 (97–100)   −0.059
NLR (n = 360)      0.540 (0.200–0.879)  
  ≥ 1.5 40 (5–85) 80 (76–84) 3 (0–10) 99 (97–100)   0.200
ESR (n = 380)      0.682 (0.436–0.927)  
  ≥ 35.5 mm 60 (15–95) 78 (74–82) 4 (1–10) 99 (99–100)   0.381
  1. TB Tuberculosis, TST Tuberculin skin test, CRP C-reactive protein, MLR Monocyte to lymphocyte ratio, NLR Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PPV Positive predictive value, NPV Negative predictive value, AUROC Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve - ROC and 95% CIs estimates derived using “roctab” command in Stata [22]