Skip to main content

Table 1 Participant characteristics overall and by TB status. N (%) unless otherwise indicated

From: Pulmonary tuberculosis screening in anti-retroviral treated adults living with HIV in Kenya

Characteristics All (n = 383) TB (n = 5) No TB (n = 378) OR 95% CI p-value
Sociodemographic
 Age, years (median (IQR)) 37 (31–45) 32 (30–32) 37 (31–45) 0.96 (0.87–1.06) 0.37
 Men 159 (41.5) 1 (20.0) 158 (41.8) 0.35 (0.04–3.14) 0.35
 BMI (median (IQR)) 22.1 (19.7–24.8) 23.4 (21–26) 22.1 (19.7–24.8) 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.79
 Education, years (median (IQR)) 8 (7–12) 8 (7–10) 8 (7–12) 1.05 (0.79–1.40) 0.74
 Unemployed 60 (15.7) 0 60 (15.9)    0.33
 Currently married 261 (68.2) 5 (100) 256 (67.7)    0.12
 Alcohol use, current (n = 377) 49 (12.7) 0 (0) 48 (12.7) (n = 377)    0.39
IPT
 IPT history (n = 381) 330 (86.6) 3 (60.0) 327 (87.0)a 0.22 (0.04–1.38) 0.11
 Completed 6 months of IPT (n = 328) 317 (96.7) 3 (100) n = 3 314 (96.6)b    0.75
HIV
 ART, current (n = 380) 379 (99.7) 5 (100) 374 (99.7)c (n = 375)   0.91
 TDF/3TC/EFV (n = 377) 182 (48.3) 3 (60) 179 (48.1) (n = 372)    
 TDF/3TC/NVP 124 (32.9) 1 (20) 123 (33.1)    
 AZT/3TC/NVP 34 (9.0) 1 (20) 33 (8.9)    
 TDF/3TC/LPVr 7 (1.9) 0 7 (1.9)    
 AZT/3TC/LPVr 7 (1.9) 0 7 (1.9)    
 Other/unknown 23 (6.1) 0 23 (6.2)    
 Time on ART, years (median (IQR)) (n = 378) 5.76 (2.39–9.19) 3.76 (1.31–3.85) 5.82 (2.39–9.20)d 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.53
 CD4 (n = 314) (median (IQR)) 405 (276–558) 370 (195–398) 408 (277–558) (n = 309) 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.35
 CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 43 (13.7) 2 (40) 41 (13.3) 4.36 (0.71–26.9) 0.11
 CD4 < 500 cells/mm3 209 (66.6) 4 (80) 205 (66.3) 2.03 (0.23–18.4) 0.53
 VL, IU/mL (n = 372) 20 (0–41) 9 (0–20) 20 (0–50) (n = 367) 1.00 (0.99–1.0) 0.72
 Suppressed VL, < 1000 IU/mL 346 (93.0) 5 (100) 341 (92.9)    0.54
 Co-trimoxazole 362 (94.5) 5 (100) 357 (94.4)    0.59
TB symptoms
 Any (n = 382) 48 (12.6) 0 (0) 48 (12.7) (n = 377)    0.39
 Current cough 31 (8.0) 0 31 (8.1)    
 Cough > 2 weeks 8 (2.1) 0 8 (2.1)    
 Weight loss 9 (2.3) 0 9 (2.4)    
 Fever 5 (1.3) 0 5 (1.3)    
 Night sweats 18 (4.7) 0 18 (4.8)    
TB symptoms present in clinic chart (n = 267) 5 (1.9) 0 5 (1.9) (n = 261)    0.76
History of TB (n = 380) 58 (15.3) 2 (50) (n = 4) 56 (14.9)a 5.71 (0.79–41.4) 0.09
TST, mm induration (n = 330) 0 (0–4) 6 (0–17) 0 (0–4) 1.18 (1.01–1.38) 0.03
TST ≥ 5 mm (n = 330) 72 (21.5) 2 (50) (n = 4) 70 (21.5) (n = 326) 3.66 (0.5–26.4) 0.20
TST ≥ 10 mm (n = 330) 38 (11.5) 2 (50) (n = 4) 36 (11.0) (n = 326) 8.06 (1.10–58.95) 0.04
History of TB in household members (n = 381) 42 (10.9) 1 (20) 40 (10.6) (n = 376) 2.10 (0.23–19.25) 0.51
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, IQR Inter-quartile range, BMI Body mass index, IPT Isoniazid preventive therapy, TDF Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, 3TC Lamivudine, EFV Efavirenz, NVP Nevirapine, AZT Zidovudine, LPVr Lopinavir/ritonavir, CD4 CD4 cell count, VL Viral load, TST Tuberculin skin test; 95% CIs based on logistic regression estimates; an = 376; bn = 325; c n = 375; dn = 373;