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Table 1 Details of bat samples collected from five sites during the NiV outbreak in Ernakulum district, Kerala state, India in 2019

From: Detection of Nipah virus in Pteropus medius in 2019 outbreak from Ernakulam district, Kerala, India

Location/Site of the collection in Kerala state Bat species NiV positive samples / total number of tested samples
[by Real-Time RT PCR]
NiV positive samples/ total serum samples tested
[by anti-NiV IgG ELISA]
Throat swab Rectal swab Visceral organs Serum
Site 1-Near River Thodupuzha, Idukki district Pteropus medius 0/54 1/54a 2/25b 4/23
Site 2-Muttom, Thodupuzha, Idukki district Pteropus medius 0/8 0/8 0/8 0/8
Site 3 -Aluva, Ernakulum district Pteropus medius 0/29 0/29 1/20c 6/19
Site 3-Aluva, Ernakulum district Rousettus 0/32 0/32 0/31 0/20
Site 4-Thuruthipuram, Thekekkara Panchayat, Ernakulum district Pteropus medius 0/4 0/4 0/4 1/4
Site 5-Vavakkad, Paravoor, Thekekkara Panchayat, Ernakulum district Pteropus medius 0/14 0/14 0/4 1/4
Total number of bats specimens positive/ tested 0/141 1/141 3/92 12/78
  1. aRectal swab positivity for NiV RNA (Ct-36.51) trapped from site-1 was observed in only one Pteropus bat [MCL-19-bat-572], which was also positive for NiV RNA by qRTPCR in liver/spleen (Ct-26.47), kidney (Ct-27.9), lung (Ct-26.49), heart (Ct-30.83), reproductive organ (Ct-33.25), and intestine (Ct-31.65)
  2. b Another Pteropus bat [MCL-19-bat-574] from site 1 were also positive for presence NiV RNA by Real-time RT-PCR in liver/spleen (Ct-28.96), kidney (Ct-34.14), brain (Ct-33.92), lungs (Ct-32.68), heart (Ct-33.58); however, the serum samples of these bats were negative for the presence of anti-NiV IgG antibodies
  3. c One Pteropus bat [MCL-19-bat-618] from site 3 was positive for the presence of NiV RNA by Real-time RT-PCR in liver/spleen (Ct- 33.62) and for anti-NiV IgG antibodies in serum
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