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Table 4 Risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity

From: Renin-angiotensin system modulators and other risk factors in COVID-19 patients with hypertension: a Korean perspective

  Room air O2 supply MV ECMO Death Difference (95% CI)
Age       335.0999***
  < 60 579 (0.87) 72 (0.11) 4 (0.01) 1 (0) 9 (0.01)  
 61–69 363 (0.71) 115 (0.22) 10 (0.02) 3 (0.01) 23 (0.04)  
 70–79 246 (0.59) 113 (0.27) 6 (0.01) 1 (0) 52 (0.12)  
  ≥ 80 134 (0.43) 78 (0.25) 4 (0.01) 1 (0) 97 (0.31)  
Sex       6.3159
 male 562 (0.67) 174 (0.21) 13 (0.02) 3 (0) 92 (0.11)  
 female 760 (0.71) 204 (0.19) 11 (0.01) 3 (0) 89 (0.08)  
Diabetes mellitus       40.4894***
 No 683 (0.76) 151 (0.17) 11 (0.01) 3 (0) 54 (0.06)  
 yes 639 (0.63) 227 (0.22) 13 (0.01) 3 (0) 127 (0.13)  
Cardiovascular disease       1.1868
 No 1255 (0.69) 357 (0.2) 22 (0.01) 6 (0) 170 (0.09)  
 Yes 67 (0.66) 21 (0.21) 2 (0.02) 0 (0) 11 (0.11)  
Cerebrovascular disease       24.6214***
 No 1158 (0.71) 309 (0.19) 22 (0.01) 6 (0) 137 (0.08)  
 Yes 164 (0.59) 69 (0.25) 2 (0.01) 0 (0) 44 (0.16)  
Ischemic heart disease       8.4676
 No 1204 (0.7) 334 (0.19) 20 (0.01) 6 (0) 155 (0.09)  
 Yes 118 (0.61) 44 (0.23) 4 (0.02) 0 (0) 26 (0.14)  
COPD       12.8381*
 No 1300 (0.7) 363 (0.19) 24 (0.01) 6 (0) 172 (0.09)  
 Yes 22 (0.48) 15 (0.33) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (0.2)  
Malignancy       11.4142*
 No 1241 (0.7) 348 (0.2) 22 (0.01) 6 (0) 158 (0.09)  
 Yes 81 (0.6) 30 (0.22) 2 (0.01) 0 (0) 23 (0.17)  
Renal replacement therapy       18.3735***
 No 1315 (0.7) 367 (0.19) 24 (0.01) 6 (0) 176 (0.09)  
 Yes 7 (0.3) 11 (0.48) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (0.22)  
ARB/ACEI use before
COVID-19 diagnosis
      0.5448
 No 1094 (0.69) 310 (0.2) 19 (0.01) 5 (0) 152 (0.1)  
 Yes 228 (0.69) 68 (0.21) 5 (0.02) 1 (0) 29 (0.09)  
ARB/ACEI use after
COVID-19 diagnosis
      8.7247
 No 1259 (0.6) 355 (0.2) 21 (0.01) 5 (0) 177 (0.1)  
 Yes 63 (0.67) 23 (0.24) 3 (0.03) 1 (0.01) 4 (0.04)  
  1. * P < .05; ** P < .01; *** P < .001
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