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Table 2 Baseline characteristics

From: Multiple antimicrobial resistance and outcomes among hospitalized patients with complicated urinary tract infections in the US, 2013–2018: a retrospective cohort study

  TR % non-TR % P-value
N = 3040 (13.03%) N = 20,291 (86.97%)  
Mean age, years (SD) 66.9 (16.6) 65.1 (18.0) < 0.001
Gender: male 1752 57.63% 9685 47.73% < 0.001
Race
 White 2186 71.91% 15,482 76.30% < 0.001
 Black 543 17.86% 2759 13.60%
 Other 282 9.28% 1919 9.46%
 Unknown 29 0.95% 131 0.65%  
Hispanic Ethnicity 164 5.39% 1087 5.36% 0.931
Admission Source
 Non-healthcare facility (including from home) 2307 75.89% 16,518 81.41% < 0.001
 Clinic 201 6.61% 1299 6.40%
 Transfer from SNF, ICF 324 10.66% 1041 5.13%
 Transfer from another non-acute care facility 122 4.01% 779 3.84%
 Other 86 2.83% 654 3.22%
Admission type
 Medical 2724 89.61% 17,890 88.17% 0.021
 Surgical 316 10.39% 2401 11.83%  
Elixhauser Comorbidities
 Congestive heart failure 705 23.19% 3999 19.71% < 0.001
 Valvular disease 166 5.46% 1339 6.60% 0.017
 Pulmonary circulation disease 133 4.38% 886 4.37% 0.983
 Peripheral vascular disease 265 8.72% 1574 7.76% 0.067
 Paralysis 763 25.10% 2671 13.16% < 0.001
 Other neurological disorders 876 28.82% 4246 20.93% < 0.001
 Chronic pulmonary disease 798 26.25% 4568 22.51% < 0.001
 Diabetes without chronic complications 852 28.03% 4664 22.99% < 0.001
 Diabetes with chronic complications 490 16.12% 2800 13.80% 0.001
 Hypothyroidism 527 17.34% 3237 15.95% 0.053
 Renal failure 959 31.55% 5683 28.01% < 0.001
 Liver disease 114 3.75% 866 4.27% 0.184
 Peptic ulcer disease with bleeding 8 0.26% 54 0.27% 0.976
 AIDS 10 0.33% 50 0.25% 0.402
 Lymphoma 22 0.72% 212 1.04% 0.098
 Metastatic cancer 91 2.99% 753 3.71% 0.048
 Solid tumor without metastasis 121 3.98% 1016 5.01% 0.014
 Rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular 104 3.42% 934 4.60% 0.003
 Coagulopathy 271 8.91% 1916 9.44% 0.351
 Obesity 619 20.36% 3576 17.62% < 0.001
 Weight loss 476 15.66% 2393 11.79% < 0.001
 Fluid and electrolyte disorders 1695 55.76% 10,940 53.92% 0.057
 Chronic blood loss anemia 53 1.74% 306 1.51% 0.326
 Deficiency anemia 833 27.40% 4870 24.00% < 0.001
 Alcohol abuse 46 1.51% 450 2.22% 0.012
 Drug abuse 88 2.89% 655 3.23% 0.329
 Psychosis 139 4.57% 801 3.95% 0.102
 Depression 635 20.89% 3454 17.02% < 0.001
 Hypertension 2063 67.86% 13,378 65.93% 0.036
Charlson Comoribidity Score
 0 344 11.32% 4046 19.94% < 0.001
 1 413 13.59% 3534 17.42%
 2 669 22.01% 3893 19.19%
 3 517 17.01% 3052 15.04%
 4 375 12.34% 2069 10.20%
 5+ 722 23.75% 3697 18.22%
 Mean (SD) 3.1 (2.3) 2.6 (2.4) < 0.001
 Median [IQR] 3 [2,4] 2 [1,4] < 0.001
Hospital Characteristics
 Census region
  Midwest 956 31.45% 6829 33.66% < 0.001
  Northeast 370 12.17% 2653 13.07%
  South 1406 46.25% 8412 41.46%
  West 308 10.13% 2397 11.81%
Number of Beds
  < 100 121 3.98% 1010 4.98%  
  100 to 199 373 12.27% 2623 12.93% 0.001
  200 to 299 667 21.94% 4138 20.39%
  300 to 399 524 17.24% 3051 15.04%
  400 to 499 504 16.58% 3567 17.58%
  500+ 851 27.99% 5902 29.09%
 Teaching 1258 41.38% 8482 41.80% 0.661
Urban 2623 86.28% 17,599 86.73% 0.815
C3R Rate at Hospital Level
 Mean (SD) 17.0% (7.6%) 14.8% (6.8%) < 0.001
 Median [IQR] 16.3% [12.4, 20.9%] 14.4% [10.2, 17.7%] < 0.001
TR Rate at Hospital Level
 Mean (SD) 15.7% (6.4%) 12.6% (5.7%) < 0.001
 Median [IQR] 15.1% [11.3, 18.8%] 12.2% [9.4, 16.1%] < 0.001
  1. MDR multidrug resistant, SD standard deviation, SNF skilled nursing facility, ICF intermediate care facility, AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome, IQR interquartile range, C3R 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant, CR carbapenem resistant
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