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Table 4 Determinants of correct and adequate knowledge about tuberculosis transmission among adult men and women

From: Determinants of self-reported correct knowledge about tuberculosis transmission among men and women in Malawi: evidence from a nationwide household survey

Variable Univariate Multivariable
CrOR 95% (CI) P-value AOR 95% (CI) P-value
Individual-level factors
 Sex
  Male 1.150 (1.085–1.218) <.0001 1.012 (0.949–1.079) 0.7118
  Female 1.000   1.000  
 Age (years)
   < 25 1.000   1.000  
  25–34 1.279 (1.206–1.357) <.0001 1.219 (1.145–1.297) <.0001
  35–44 1.256 (1.175–1.342) <.0001 1.275 (1.187–1.371) <.0001
   ≥ 45 1.173 (1.064–1.293) 0.0014 1.239 (1.116–1.375) <.0001
 Educational level
  No education 1.000   1.000  
  Primary 1.181 (1.083–1.286) 0.0002 1.253 (1.144–1.371) <.0001
  Secondary or high 2.225 (2.022–2.447) <.0001 2.000 (1.793–2.232) <.0001
 Wealth index
  Poorest 1.000   1.000  
  Poorer 1.140 (1.048–1.240) 0.0022 1.081 (0.993–1.176) 0.0734
  Middle 1.238 (1.139–1.346) <.0001 1.106 (1.016–1.205) 0.0205
  Richer 1.324 (1.218–1.439) <.0001 1.096 (1.005–1.196) 0.0387
  Richest 1.822 (1.670–1.987) <.0001 1.166 (1.053–1.292) 0.0032
 Religion
  Roman catholic 1.063 (0.828–1.364) 0.6319 0.957 (0.743–1.232) 0.7339
  CCAP 1.212 (0.944–1.557) 0.1322 1.037 (0.804–1.338) 0.7768
  Anglican 1.110 (0.845–1.459) 0.4523 1.145 (0.868–1.510) 0.3365
  Seventh Day Adventist/Baptist 1.305 (1.006–1.693) 0.0452 1.073 (0.824–1.398) 0.6004
  Other Christian 0.964 (0.754–1.231) 0.7675 0.951 (0.742–1.219) 0.6936
  Muslim 1.042 (0.804–1.352) 0.7541 1.020 (0.777–1.339) 0.8855
  No religion/other 1.000   1.000  
 Amount of media exposure
  0 1.000   1.000  
  1 1.103 (1.038–1.172) 0.0015 1.010 (0.948–1.076) 0.7571
  2 1.306 (1.218–1.399) <.0001 1.056 (0.978–1.140) 0.1621
  3 1.787 (1.636–1.959) <.0001 1.190 (1.076–1.315) 0.0007
 Occupation
  Not working 0.934 (0.864–1.010) 0.0885 1.011 (0.931–1.097) 0.7992
  Professional/technical/managerial 1.911 (1.676–2.180) <.0001 1.336 (1.166–1.531) <.0001
  Clerical/sales/services 1.028 (0.917–1.153) 0.6346 0.893 (0.795–1.004) 0.0588
  Agricultural employee 0.841 (0.780–0.907) <.0001 0.909 (0.843–0.981) 0.0143
  Skilled manual 1.125 (0.976–1.296) 0.1032 0.983 (0.850–1.137) 0.8176
  Unskilled manual 1.000   1.000  
 Tuberculosis can be cured
  No 1.000   1.000  
  Yes 2.088 (1.960–2.223) <.0001 1.708 (1.600–1.823) <.0001
Community-level factors
 Place of residence
  Urban 1.674 (1.528–1.835) <.0001 1.165 (1.063–1.277) 0.0011
  Rural 1.000   1.000  
 Geographical region
  Northern 0.588 (0.533–0.650) <.0001 0.581 (0.512–0.659) <.0001
  Central 0.777 (0.715–0.845) <.0001 0.896 (0.819–0.980) 0.0161
  Southern 1.000   1.000  
 Ethnicity
  Chewa 1.214 (1.025–1.439) 0.0249 1.052 (0.878–1.259) 0.5836
  Tumbuka 1.125 (0.941–1.345) 0.1956 1.054 (0.886–1.253) 0.5553
  Lomwe 1.709 (1.434–2.036) <.0001 1.286 (1.066–1.551) 0.0086
  Tonga 0.919 (0.738–1.145) 0.4520 0.898 (0.727–1.108) 0.3158
  Yao 1.423 (1.184–1.710) 0.0002 1.122 (0.911–1.382) 0.2769
  Sena 1.387 (1.120–1.719) 0.0028 1.100 (0.881–1.373) 0.4018
  Nkhonde 1.199 (0.914–1.572) 0.1900 1.146 (0.878–1.497) 0.3156
  Ngoni 1.398 (1.168–1.673) 0.0003 1.063 (0.882–1.281) 0.5220
  Mang’anja 1.484 (1.173–1.877) 0.0010 1.086 (0.850–1.386) 0.5110
  Nyanja 1.251 (0.979–1.599) 0.0735 0.997 (0.780–1.274) 0.9807
  Other 1.000   1.000  
  1. TB tuberculosis, CrOR Crude Odds Ratio, AOR adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  2. Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine, Frequency of listening to radio and frequency of watching television
  3. Composite measure of a household’s cumulative living standard
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