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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of Individual and community characteristics by sex, Malawi Demographic Health Survey, 2015–16

From: Determinants of self-reported correct knowledge about tuberculosis transmission among men and women in Malawi: evidence from a nationwide household survey

Variable Male n (%)
6937 (24.04)
Female n (%)
21,925 (75.96)
Overall n (%)
28,862 (100.00)
P-value
Individual-level factors
 Age (years)     <.0001
   < 25 2838 (40.91) 8891 (40.55) 11,729 (40.64)  
  25–34 1896 (27.33) 7012 (31.98) 8908 (30.86)  
  35–44 1441 (20.77) 4626 (21.10) 6067 (21.02)  
   ≥ 45 762 (10.98) 1396 (6.37) 2158 (7.48)  
 Educational level     <.0001
  No education 366 (5.28) 2285 (10.42) 2651 (9.19)  
  Primary 3834 (55.27) 13,260 (60.48) 17,094 (59.23)  
  Secondary or high 2737 (39.46) 6380 (29.10) 9117 (31.59)  
 Wealth index     <.0001
  Poorest 939 (13.54) 3631 (16.56) 4570 (15.83)  
  Poorer 1204 (17.36) 3824 (17.44) 5028 (17.42)  
  Middle 1328 (19.14) 3982 (18.16) 5310 (18.40)  
  Richer 1467 (21.15) 4440 (20.25) 5907 (20.47)  
  Richest 1999 (28.82) 6048 (27.58) 8047 (27.88)  
 Religion     <.0001
  Roman catholic 1299 (18.73) 3916 (17.86) 5215 (18.07)  
  CCAP 1180 (17.01) 3590 (16.37) 4770 (16.53)  
  Anglican 361 (5.20) 1133 (5.17) 1494 (5.18)  
  Seventh Day Adventist/Baptist 491 (7.08) 1679 (7.66) 2170 (7.52)  
  Other Christian 2776 (40.02) 9215 (42.03) 11,991 (41.55)  
  Muslim 655 (9.44) 2273 (10.37) 2928 (10.14)  
  No religion/other 175 (2.52) 119 (0.54) 294 (1.02)  
 Marital status     <.0001
  Never in union 2575 (37.12) 4526 (20.64) 7101 (24.60)  
  Currently in union 4108 (59.22) 14,443 (65.87) 14,443 (64.27)  
  Formerly in union 254 (3.66) 2956 (13.48) 2956 (11.12)  
 Amount of media exposure     <.0001
  0 1076 (15.51) 9046 (41.26) 10,122 (35.07)  
  1 2101 (30.29) 6684 (30.49) 8785 (30.44)  
  2 2157 (31.09) 3988 (18.19) 6145 (21.29)  
  3 1603 (23.11) 2207 (10.07) 3810 (13.20)  
 Occupation     <.0001
  Not working 960 (13.84) 7148 (32.60) 8108 (28.09)  
  Professional/technical/managerial 490 (7.06) 1280 (5.84) 1770 (6.11)  
  Clerical/sales/services 478 (6.89) 1537 (7.01) 2015 (6.98)  
  Agricultural employee 2701 (38.94) 8448 (38.53) 11,149 (38.63)  
  Skilled manual 800 (11.53) 335 (1.53) 1135 (3.93)  
  Unskilled manual 1508 (21.74) 3177 (14.49) 4685 (16.23)  
 Tb can be cured     <.0001
  No 1010 (14.56) 4375 (19.95) 5385 (18.66)  
  Yes 5927 (85.44) 17,550 (80.05) 23,477 (81.34)  
Community-level factors
 Place of residence     0.3626
  Urban 1594 (22.98) 4923 (22.45) 6517 (22.58)  
  Rural 5343 (77.02) 17,002 (77.55) 22,345 (77.42)  
 Geographical region     0.0025
  Northern 1447 (20.86) 4286 (19.55) 5733 (19.86)  
  Central 2489 (35.88) 7657 (34.92) 10,146 (35.15)  
  Southern 3001 (43.26) 9982 (45.53) 12,983 (44.98)  
 Ethnicity     <.0001
  Chewa 2167 (31.24) 6556 (29.90) 8723 (30.22)  
  Tumbuka 747 (10.77) 2326 (10.61) 3073 (10.65)  
  Lomwe 1251 (18.03) 4128 (18.83) 5379 (18.64)  
  Tonga 253 (3.65) 871 (3.97) 1124 (3.89)  
  Yao 704 (10.15) 2337 (10.66) 3041 (10.54)  
  Sena 299 (4.31) 949 (4.33) 1248 (4.32)  
  Nkhonde 121 (1.74) 290 (1.32) 411 (1.42)  
  Ngoni 878 (12.66) 2829 (12.90) 3707 (12.84)  
  Mang’anja 178 (2.57) 499 (2.28) 677 (2.35)  
  Nyanja 115 (1.66) 491 (2.24) 606 (2.10)  
  Other 224 (3.23) 649 (2.96) 873 (3.02)  
 Correct knowledge of TB transmission     <.0001
  No 2522 (36.36) 8602 (39.23) 11,124 (38.54)  
  Yes 4415 (63.64) 13,323 (60.77) 17,738 (61.46)  
  1. TB tuberculosis, OR Odds Ratio, AOR adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  2. Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine, Frequency of listening to radio and frequency of watching television
  3. Composite measure of a household’s cumulative living standard
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