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Table 1 Patient characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes

From: The different manifestations of COVID-19 in adults and children: a cohort study in an intensive care unit

  Total
n = 20
Adults
n = 16
Children
n = 4
p-value
Males, n (%) 11 (55) 9 (56.3) 2 (50) 1.000
Age (years) 29.5 (20.3–40) 32 (23.3–41.5) 13.5 (5.5–16.5) < 0.001
Risk factors 11 (55) 11 (68.8) 0 (0) 0.026
 Obesity 7 (35) 7 (43.8)   
 Asthma 5 (25) 5 (31.3)   
 Arterial hypertension 2 (10) 2 (12.5)   
 Diabetes 1 (5) 1 (6.3)   
Days of symptoms until admission 9.5 (7–11.8) 10.5 (8–12) 4 (2.3–6.5) 0.002
Reason for admission, n (%)     < 0.001
 Respiratory problems 16 (80) 16 (100) 0 (0)  
 Haemodynamic problems 4 (20) 0 (0) 4 (100)  
PRISM III 6 (2.8–10) 6 (2.8–9.5) 8.5 (1.3–15.8) 0.567
Respiratory support
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 15 (75) 13 (81.3) 2 (50) 0.249
  - Maximum PEEP (cmH2O) 12 (10–14) 13 (10.5–14.5) 6 (6–8) 0.014
  - FiO2 (%) 50 (40–60) 50 (40–60) 35 (26.3–43.7) 0.032
  - Prone position, n (%) 10 (66.7) 10 (76.9) 0 (0) 0.036
  - Recruitment manoeuvres, n (%) 5 (33.3) 5 (38.5) 0 (0) 0.509
  - Length of MV (days) 10 (4–12) 11 (8–12) 3.5 (3–4) 0.074
 Non-invasive ventilation, n (%) 7 (35) 5 (31.3) 2 (50) 0.587
  - CPAP, n (%) 1 (14.3) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0.495
  - BiPAP, n (%) 6 (85.7) 4 (80) 2 (100) 0.495
  - Length of NIV (days) 2 (2–3) 2 (1.5–3.5) 2 (2–3) 0.669
Haemodynamic support
 Inotropic treatment, n (%) 10 (50) 6 (37.5) 4 (100) 0.087
 Inotropic due to shock, n (%) 4 (20) 0 (0) 4 (100) 0.005
 Inotropic support length (days) 2 (1–4) 1.5 (1–2) 3 (2–4.7) 0.094
 Maximum VIS 10 (5–26.3) 5 (5–10) 27.5 (17.5–30) 0.008
Antithrombotic prophylaxis
 Heparin treatment, n (%) 19 (95) 16 (100) 3 (75) 0.200
 High doses, n (%) 7 (36.8) 6 (37.5) 1 (33.3) 1.000
Specific treatment
 Azithromycin, n (%) 17 (85) 14 (87.5) 3 (75) 0.509
 Hydroxychloroquine, n (%) 18 (20) 16 (100) 2 (50) 0.032
 Corticosteroids, n (%) 11 (55) 7 (43.8) 4 (100) 0.094
 Tocilizumab, n (%) 10 (50) 9 (56.3) 1 (25) 0.582
 Interferon, n (%) 5 (25) 5 (31.3) 0 (0) 0.530
Antibiotic treatment
 Antibiotic requirement, n (%) 17 (85) 13 (81.3) 4 (100) 1.000
 Length of antibiotic treatment (days) 7 (6.5–8.5) 7 (7–9) 6.5 (5.3–7) 0.135
Outcomes
 Length of stay in paediatric ICU (days) 10 (5–16.3) 12 (5.7–17) 6 (4.3–7) 0.064
 Length of stay in hospital (days) 18 (12.5–29.3) 21 (13.7–29.8) 12 (11–13) 0.170
 Pulmonary thromboembolism, n (%) 1 (5) 1 (6.3) 0 (0) 1.000
 Need for ECMO, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Mortality, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
  1. Values are expressed as frequency (percentage) for qualitative variables and as median (interquartile range) for quantitative variables. n: number of patients. p-value: significant value. PRISM III Paediatric Risk of Mortality III, VIS vasoactive inotropic score, MV mechanical ventilation, NIV non-invasive ventilation, ICU Intensive Care Unit, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
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