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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with diabetes and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) compared to patients with no diabetes and MERS

From: Critically ill patients with diabetes and Middle East respiratory syndrome: a multi-center observational study

Variables Diabetes N = 171 No Diabetes N = 179 P-value
Age (year), median (Q1, Q3) 61.0 (53.0, 72.0) 54.0 (35.0, 67.0) < 0.0001
BMI (Kg/m2), median (Q1, Q3) 29.3 (24.6, 33.3) 28.3 (24.1, 33.0) 0.31
Male sex – no. (%) 114 (66.7) 127 (70.9) 0.39
Healthcare worker – no. (%) 4 (2.3) 28 (15.6) < 0.0001
Community-acquired – no. (%) 102 (59.6) 83 (46.4)
Healthcare-associated (Non-healthcare worker) – no. (%) 65 (38.0) 68 (38.0)
Days from the onset of symptoms to the emergency room, median (Q1, Q3) 5.0 (3.0, 8.0) 4.0 (2.0, 7.0) 0.30
Days from symptom onset to ICU admission, median (Q1, Q3) 7.0 (4.0, 10.5) 7.0 (4.0, 11.0) 0.66
Days from symptom onset to intubation, median (Q1, Q3) 8.0 (5.0, 12.0) 8.0 (5.0, 13.0) 0.37
Presenting symptoms – no. (%)
Lower respiratory
  Dyspnea 136 (79.5) 123 (68.7) 0.02
  Cough 122 (71.3) 117 (65.4) 0.23
   With sputum 75 (43.9) 58 (32.4) 0.03
   With bloody sputum 11 (6.4) 18 (10.1) 0.22
  Chest pain 36 (21.1) 32 (17.9) 0.45
  Wheezing 10 (5.8) 9 (5.0) 0.74
Upper respiratory
  Earache 2 (1.2) 1 (0.6) 0.62^
  Rhinorrhea 6 (3.5) 11 (6.1) 0.25
  Sore throat 23 (13.5) 24 (13.4) 0.99
Systemic symptoms
  Fever (temperature > 38 °C) 130 (76.0) 131 (73.2) 0.54
  Myalgia or arthralgia 32 (18.7) 34 (19.0) 0.95
  Headache 14 (8.2) 21 (11.7) 0.27
  Fatigue 66 (38.6) 55 (30.7) 0.12
  Abdominal pain 22 (12.9) 25 (14.0) 0.76
  Lymphadenopathy 1 (0.6) 2 (1.1) > 0.99^
  Diarrhea 20 (11.7) 18 (10.1) 0.62
  Vomiting/nausea 28 (16.4) 30 (16.8) 0.92
  Altered consciousness/ confusion 44 (25.7) 30 (16.8) 0.04
  Seizures 2 (1.2) 2 (1.1) > 0.99^
Other comorbidities – no. (%)
 Chronic pulmonary disease (including asthma) 22 (12.9) 24 (13.4) 0.88
 Liver disease 12 (7.0) 10 (5.6) 0.58
 Chronic renal disease 71 (41.5) 39 (21.8) < 0.0001
 Chronic cardiac disease 95 (55.6) 43 (24.0) < 0.0001
 Chronic neurological disease 22 (12.9) 16 (8.9) 0.24
 BMI > 30 (Kg/m2) 55 (45.5) 60 (40.5) 0.42
 Rheumatologic disease 2 (1.2) 5 (2.8) 0.45^
 Any malignancy including leukemia, lymphoma, or solid tumors 14 (8.2) 20 (11.2) 0.35
 Immunosuppressant use before admission 6 (3.5) 15 (8.4) 0.06
SOFA score on ICU day 1, median (Q1, Q3) 9.0 (6.0, 12.0) 8.0 (5.0, 11.0) 0.02
  1. BMI Body mass index, ICU intensive care unit, Q1 first quartile, Q3 third quartile, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  2. The denominator of the percentage is the total number of subjects in the treatment group. For continuous variables, Mann-Whitney U test was used to calculate the P-value. For categorical variables, Chi-square test was used to calculate the P-value unless otherwise noted. ^Fisher’s exact test was used to calculate P-value