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Table 1 Characteristics of studies describing the prevalence of bacterial otitis media

From: Bacterial otitis media in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sr.No.AuthorPositiveSample sizeCountryStudy designPopulation characteristicsYearQuality scoreNumber of isolatesType of sampleAge of participants
1Afolabi OA et al. (2012) [27]134.5135NigeriaCSpatients with CSOM20126138Ear discharge5-10 yrs. = 46; 11-20 yrs. = 26; 21-30 yrs. = 18; 31-40 yrs. = 20; 41-50 yrs. = 6; 51-60 yrs. = 10; 61-70 yrs. = 14
2Appiah-Korang L., et al. (2014) [28]277315GhanaCS®patients with OM20135322Ear swab<=1 yrs. = 64; 2-4 yrs. = 63; 5-13 yrs. = 55; 14-19 yrs. = 11; 20-44 yrs. = 53; 45-64 yrs. = 19; > = 65 yrs. = 7
3Argaw-Denboba A et.al. (2014) [29]10241225EthiopiaCS®patients with OM201481124Ear discharge< 5 yrs. = 153; 5-15 yrs. = 253; 16-35 yrs. = 434; 36-50 yrs. = 105; > = 51 = 47
4Chidozie AH et al. (2015) [30]137156NigeriaCSpediatric patients with OM20147152Ear discharge<=5 yrs. = 137
5Chirwa M., et al. (2015) [31]116118MalawiCSpatients with CSOM20138214Ear discharge< 18 yrs. = 64; > = 18 yrs. = 40
6Ejiofor S. O., et al. (2016) [32]3040NigeriaCSpediatric patients with OM2015743Ear swab<=1 yrs. = 22; 2-4 yrs. = 8; 5-7 yrs. = 5; 8-9 yrs. = 5
7Elmustafa M., et al. (2016) [33]204217SudanCSpatients with CSOM20135305Ear discharge< 16 yrs. = 90; 16-30 yrs. = 50; 31-45 yrs. = 37; 46-60 yrs. = 31; > 60 yrs. = 8
8Fayemiwo SA et.al. (2017) [34]9198NigeriaCSpatients with OM20176115Ear discharge< 10 yrs. = 54; 11-20 yrs. = 8; 21-30 yrs. = 20; 31-40 yrs. = 4; 41-50 yrs. = 3; > 50 yrs. = 9
9Garba B. I., et al. (2017) [35]4353NigeriaCS®pediatric patients with OM2017545Ear swab0–5 yrs. = 38; 5–10 yrs. = 10; 10-15 yrs. = 5
10Habibu A. (2015) [36]68.569NigeriaCSpatients with CSOM2013568Ear discharge0 – 5 yrs. = 14; 6-11 yrs. = 12; 12-17 yrs. = 8; 18-23 yrs. = 1; 24-29 yrs. = 3; 30-35 yrs. = 0; 36-41 yrs. = 0; > 41 yrs. = 1
11Hailu D., et al. (2016) [37]296368EthiopiaCS®patients with OM20155296Ear discharge0-10 yrs. = 91; 11-20 yrs. = 102; 21-30 yrs. = 51; 31-40 yrs. = 31; 41-50 yrs. = 17; 51-60 yrs. = 3; > 61 yrs. = 1
12Jido BA et al. (2014) [38]95110NigeriaCSPatients with OM2011695Ear swab0-5 yrs. = 61; 6-10 yrs. = 14; 11-15 yrs. = 5;> = 16 yrs. = 6
13Jik A et al. (2015) [39]154182NigeriaCSpediatric patients with OM20157154Ear swab1-3 yrs. = 59; 4-6 yrs. = 47; 7-9 yrs. = 30; 10-12 yrs. = 18
14Justin R et al. (2018) [40]89.590UgandaCSpatients with CSOM20165127Ear discharge< 18 yrs. = 47; > 18 yrs. = 42
15Kazeem M. J. and R. Aiyeleso (2016) [41]360380NigeriaCSpatients with CSOM20155371Ear discharge< 10 yrs. = 256; 11-20 yrs. = 72; 21-30 yrs. = 26; 31-40 yrs. = 15; 41-50 yrs. = 3; 51-60 yrs. = 7; > 60 yrs. = 1
16Matundwelo N. and C. Mwansasu (2016) [42]60.561ZambiaCS®patients with CSOM20166154Ear discharge0-7 yrs. = 34; 8-15 yrs. = 26
17Muluye D et al. (2013) [43]204228EthiopiaCS®patients with OM20137204Ear discharge0-5 yrs. = 51; 6-10 yrs. = 31; 11-15 yrs. = 17; 16-20 yrs. = 21; 21-30 yrs. = 45; 31-40 yrs. = 21; > = 41 yrs. = 18
18Nwogwugwu, NU et al. (2014) [44]128152NigeriaCSpediatric patients with OM20146128Ear dischargeno age specific data
19Ogah S. and J. Ogah (2016) [45]8896NigeriaCSpatients with CSOM20135149Ear discharge0-10 yrs. = 34; 11-20 yrs. = 28; 21 = 30 yrs. = 16; 31-40 yrs. = 12; 41-50 yrs. = 8; 51-60 yrs. = 6; 61-70 yrs. = 2; 71-80 yrs. = 4
20Ohieku, J. and F. Fakuade (2013) [46]107125NigeriaCSPatients with OM20105117Ear swab0-2 yrs. = 49; 2-5 yrs. = 20; 6-12 yrs. = 9; 13-18 yrs. = 4; 19-64 yrs. = 24; > = 65 yrs. = 1
21Onifade AK et al. (2018) [47]  NigeriaCSPatients with OM20155537Ear discharge 
22Orji F. T. and B. O. Dike (2015) [48]202206NigeriaCS®patients with CSOM20135250Ear discharge< 1 yrs. = 12; 1-5 yrs. = 37; 5-15 yrs. = 58; > 15 yrs. = 99
23Ouedraogo RW et al. (2012) [49]3441Burkina FasoCSpatients with OM2012536Ear swabno age specific data
24Phiri H., et al. (2016) [50]98100ZambiaCSpatients with CSOM20165169Ear discharge<=5 yrs. = 19; 6-10 yrs. = 7; 11-15 yrs. = 7; 16-20 yrs. = 15; 21-25 yrs. = 7; 26-30 yrs. = 13; 31-35 yrs. = 6; 36-40 yrs. = 8; 41-45 yrs. = 5; 46-50 yrs. = 5; 51-55 yrs. = 2; 61-65 yrs. = 1; 66-70 yrs. = 5
25Seid A et al. (2014) [51]171191EthiopiaCSpatients with OM20107207Ear discharge< 5ys = 33; 5-9 yrs. = 18; 10-14 yrs. = 35; 15-19 yrs. = 32; 20-24 yrs. = 20; 25-29 yrs. = 17; 30-34 yrs. = 7; 35-39 yrs. = 10; 40-44 yrs. = 6; 45-49 yrs. = 4; > = 50 yrs. = 9
26Tiedt NJ et al. (2013) [52]8086South AfricaCSpediatric patients with OM20136153Ear discharge< 13 yrs. = 86
27Udden F., et al. (2018) [53]150152AngolaCSpatients with CSOM20165443Ear discharge< 5 yrs. = 34; 5-9 yrs. = 23; 10-14 yrs. = 24; > = 15 yrs. = 55; no age data = 16
28Wasihun A. G. and Y. Zemene (2015) [54]157162EthiopiaCSpatients with CSOM20158216Ear discharge0-5 yrs. = 30; 6-10 yrs. = 41; 11-15 yrs. = 22; 16-20 yrs. = 11; 21-25 yrs. = 23; 26-30 yrs. = 9; > 30 yrs. = 26
29Worku S., et al. (2017) [55]154167EthiopiaCSpatients with OM20147171Ear discharge< 15 yrs. = 60; 15-40 yrs. = 81; > 40 yrs. = 26
30Adoga AA et al. (2011) [56]a7597NigeriaCSpatients with CSOM2009575Ear discharge1-10 yrs. = 40; 11-20 yrs. = 23; 21-30 yrs. = 16; 31-50 yrs. = 11; > 50 yrs. = 7
31Hailegiyorgis TT et al. (2018) [57]a95196EthiopiaCSpediatric patients with OM2014795Ear swab< 2 yrs. = 41; 2-4 yrs. = 36; > 4-5 yrs. = 18
32Mushi M. F., et al. (2016) [58]a126301TanzaniaCSpatients with CSOM2014660Ear discharge1-10 yrs. = 31; 11-20 yrs. = 52; 21-30 yrs. = 51; 31-40 yrs. = 59; 41-50 yrs. = 55; > 50 yrs. = 33
33Worku M. and M. Bekele (2014) [59]a61117EthiopiaCSpatients with OM2013669Ear swabChildren = 53; Adult = 64
  1. CS cross-sectional, CS® Retrospective cross-sectional, OM Otitis Media, CSOM Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media
  2. aStudies removed from analysis of pooled prevalence by sensitivity analysis