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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of surgical site infections (SSIs) in 4 MNGHA hospitals in Saudi Arabia (2007–2016)

From: High contribution and impact of resistant gram negative pathogens causing surgical site infections at a multi-hospital healthcare system in Saudi Arabia, 2007–2016

 CSEC
(N = 141)
COLO
(N = 22)
CBGB
(N = 153)
CHOL
(N = 19)
HER
(N = 16)
KPRO
(N = 19)
Others
(N = 33)
Total
(N = 403)
Eligibility
 Procedures surveyeda12,002 (53.9%)181 (0.8%)2409 (10.8%)2696 (12.1%)1613 (7.3%)1312 (5.9%)2035 (9.1%)22,248 (100.0%)
 SSI events detecteda232 (38.5%)28 (4.7%)208 (34.6%)29 (4.8%)31 (5.1%)31 (5.1%)43 (7.1%)602 (100.0%)
 SSI proportion232 (1.9%)28 (15.5%)208 (8.6%)29 (1.1%)31 (1.9%)31 (2.4%)43 (2.1%)602 (2.7%)
 Included procedures141 (60.8%)22 (78.6%)153 (73.6%)19 (65.5%)16 (51.6%)19 (61.3%)33 (76.7%)403 (66.9%)
 Included specimensa160 (32.5%)29 (5.9%)194 (39.4%)28 (5.7%)21 (4.3%)22 (4.5%)38 (7.7%)492 (100.0%)
Hospital facilitya
 KAMC-Riyadh9 (5.0%)22 (12.3%)131 (73.2%)1 (0.6%)3 (1.7%)1 (0.6%)12 (6.7%)179 (100.0%)
 KAMC-Jeddah76 (51.4%)0 (0.0%)22 (14.9%)13 (8.8%)10 (6.8%)13 (8.8%)14 (9.5%)148 (100.0%)
 KAH-Al hasa15 (75.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)5 (25.0%)20 (100.0%)
 IAFH-Dammam41 (73.2%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)5 (8.9%)3 (5.4%)5 (8.9%)2 (3.6%)56 (100.0%)
Age, mean ± SDb31.2 ± 6.552.1 ± 18.063.9 ± 8.749.2 ± 15.151.0 ± 16.164.7 ± 11.450.9 ± 19.449.5 ± 18.0
Genderb
 Male0 (0.0%)12 (54.5%)78 (52.0%)5 (26.3%)4 (25.0%)8 (42.1%)13 (39.4%)120 (30.0%)
 Female141 (100.0%)10 (45.5%)72 (48.0%)14 (73.7%)12 (75.0%)11 (57.9%)20 (60.6%)280 (70.0%)
Admission
 ICU3 (2.1%)6 (27.3%)153 (100.0%)1 (5.3%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)5 (15.2%)168 (41.7%)
 Wards138 (97.9%)16 (72.7%)0 (0.0%)18 (94.7%)16 (100.0%)19 (100.0%)28 (84.8%)235 (58.3%)
Wound class
 Clean47 (33.3%)0 (0.0%)153 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)11 (68.8%)19 (100.0%)24 (72.7%)254 (63.0%)
 Non-clean94 (66.7%)22 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)19 (100.0%)5 (31.3%)0 (0.0%)9 (27.3%)149 (37.0%)
SSI type
 Superficial115 (87.8%)6 (27.3%)117 (76.5%)9 (81.8%)8 (72.7%)9 (56.3%)20 (62.5%)284 (75.5%)
 Deep14 (10.7%)11 (50.0%)32 (20.9%)0 (0.0%)3 (27.3%)3 (18.8%)10 (31.3%)73 (19.4%)
 Organ/space2 (1.5%)5 (22.7%)4 (2.6%)2 (18.2%)0 (0.0%)4 (25.0%)2 (6.3%)19 (5.1%)
Diagnosis time
 Before discharge12 (9.7%)13 (76.5%)60 (40.5%)9 (52.9%)2 (12.5%)3 (25.0%)12 (40.0%)111 (30.5%)
 After discharge81 (65.3%)3 (17.6%)69 (46.6%)8 (47.1%)10 (62.5%)4 (33.3%)15 (50.0%)190 (52.2%)
 On readmission31 (25.0%)1 (5.9%)19 (12.8%)0 (0.0%)4 (25.0%)5 (41.7%)3 (10.0%)63 (17.3%)
Hospital death
 No101 (100.0%)11 (61.1%)116 (90.6%)15 (100.0%)13 (100.0%)14 (100.0%)29 (96.7%)299 (93.7%)
 Yes0 (0.0%)7 (38.9%)12 (9.4%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (3.3%)20 (6.3%)
  1. Others, procedures with ≤10 specimens including in order abdominal hysterectomy, appendix surgery, craniotomy, gastric surgery, open reduction of fracture, coronary artery bypass graft with only chest incision, hip prosthesis, and breast surgery
  2. Abbreviations: MNGHA Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, KAMC King Abdulaziz Medical City, KAH King Abdulaziz Hospital, IAFH Imam Abdulrahman Al Faisal Hospital, CSEC Cesarean section, COLO Colon surgery, CBGB Coronary artery bypass graft with both chest and donor site incisions, CHOL Gallbladder surgery, HER Herniorrhaphy, KPRO Knee prosthesis
  3. aRow rather than column percentages were calculated b Age and gender were calculated for non-duplicate patients