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Table 1 Included studies describing human psittacosis cases and associated animal sources with strength of evidence score

From: Animal sources for zoonotic transmission of psittacosis: a systematic review

Reference, yearAnimal speciesYear of notificationCountryDiagnostics humanNo. confirmed human casesDiagnostics animal and/or environmentStrength of evidence
Abadia et al., 2006 [28]ducks2000Franceserology71bno8
chickens2000Franceserology71bno4
turkeys2000Franceserology71bno4
Arenas-Valls et al., 2017 [17]psittaciformesunknownSpainPCR & serology4no8
Arraiz et al., 2012 [29]columbiformesunknownVenezuelaPCR8PCR19
Belchior et al., 2010 [30]ducks2009FrancePCR & serology4no12
Belchior et al., 2011 [31]unspecified birds2008FrancePCR & serology4PCR8
Berk et al., 2008 [7]passeriformes2007The NetherlandsPCR & serology12antigen detection8
Bourne et al., 2003 [32]psittaciformesunknownUnited Kingdomserology1no2
Branley et al., 2008 [33]psittaciformesunknownAustraliaPCR, culture & serology3PCR & culture12
Branley et al., 2014 [34]unspecified birds2003–2009AustraliaPCR, culture & serology48no6
Cadario et al., 2017a [35]chickens2010ArgentinaPCR1no5
psittaciformes2011ArgentinaPCR1PCR17
psittaciformes2013ArgentinaPCR1PCR17
columbiformes2013ArgentinaPCR1no5
psittaciformes2014ArgentinaPCR1no5
Carlier et al., 2014 [36]ducks2011FrancePCR & serology1PCR10
Chan et al., 2017 [37]horse2014Australiaserology3PCR & serology15
Chau et al., 2015a [38]psittaciformes2014Hong KongPCR & serology1no4
chickens2014Hong KongPCR & serology1no4
geese2014Hong KongPCR & serology1bno4
chickens2014Hong KongPCR & serology1bno4
Cheng et al., 2013 [39]psittaciformes2011Taiwanserology1no4
Ciftci et al., 2008 [40]psittaciformesunknownTurkeyserology2no2
Clarence et al., 2016 [41]columbiformesunknownUnited KingdomPCR1no5
De Boeck et al., 2016 [42]psittaciformes2013BelgiumPCR, culture & serology3PCR22
De Schrijver et al., 2016 [43]psittaciformes2014Belgiumserology4PCR10
Dickx et al., 2010 [44]columbiformes2008BelgiumPCR & culture4PCR & culture19
Dickx et al., 2010 [45]chickens2007BelgiumPCR, culture & serology43PCR & culture14
turkeys2007BelgiumPCR, culture & serology33PCR & culture22
Dickx et al., 2011 [46]chickens2010BelgiumPCR & culture4bPCR & culture19
guinea fowl2010BelgiumPCR & culture4bPCR & culture19
turkeys2010BelgiumPCR & culture4bPCR & culture19
Dovc et al., 2005 [47]psittaciformes1997Sloveniaserology1serology3
Dovc et al., 2007 [48]psittaciformesunknownSloveniaserology1PCR & serology6
Elliot et al., 2001 [49]unspecified birdsunknownAustraliaserology1no2
Espinosa de los Monteros et al., 2005 [50]psittaciformes2003SpainPCR & serology3PCR & serology9
Fenga et al., 2007 [25]cattle2005Italyserology28bno8
pigs2005Italyserology28bno8
goats2005Italyserology28bno8
sheep2005Italyserology28bno8
Ferreira et al., 2015 [51]psittaciformesunknownBrazilserology3PCR8
Ferreira et al., 2017 [52]psittaciformesunknownBrazilserology1PCR6
Ferreri et al., 2007 [53]passeriformes2000ItalyPCR & immunohistochemistry1PCR & immunohistochemistry17
Fraeyman, 2010a [54]columbiformesunknownBelgiumPCR & serology1no3
columbiformesunknownBelgiumPCR & serology1no3
columbiformesunknownBelgiumPCR & serology1unknown3
Frutos et al., 2012 [55]psittaciformes2010–2011ArgentinaPCR6bno7
chickens2010–2011ArgentinaPCR1bno5
columbiformes2010–2011ArgentinaPCR1bno5
passeriformes2010–2011ArgentinaPCR2bno5
Gacouin et al., 2012 [56]chickens1993–2011FrancePCR or serology8bno3
ducks1993–2011FrancePCR or serology8bno3
psittaciformes1993–2011FrancePCR or serology2no1
columbiformes1993–2011FrancePCR or serology2no1
Gaede et al., 2008 [8]chickens2005GermanyPCR & serology7bPCR22
ducks2005GermanyPCR & serology7bPCR22
geese2005GermanyPCR & serology7bPCR22
Garbim et al., 2017 [57]psittaciformesunknownBrazilserology1no2
García-Ordóñez et al., 2011 [58]psittaciformes2009Spainserology5PCR6
Geens et al., 2005 [59]turkeysunknownBelgiumPCR1PCR19
Gelfand et al., 2013 [60]psittaciformesunknownUnited States of Americaserology & immunohistochemistry2PCR & immunohistochemistry6
Haas et al., 2006 [9]columbiformesunknownThe Netherlandsserology1PCR2
Haas et al., 2007 [61]ducks2007GermanyPCR1no5
Harkinezhad et al., 2007 [62]psittaciformesunknownBelgiumPCR, culture & serology3PCR & culture22
Harkinezhad et al., 2009 [63]psittaciformes2002–2003BelgiumPCR & serology8no10
columbiformes2002–2003BelgiumPCR & serology8no10
passeriformes2002–2003BelgiumPCR & serology12no10
turkeys2002–2003BelgiumPCR & serology1no4
Heddema et al., 2003 [64]columbiformesunknownThe NetherlandsPCR & serology1PCR4
Heddema et al., 2006 [65]psittaciformes2005The NetherlandsPCR & serology10bPCR20
columbiformes2005The NetherlandsPCR & serology10bPCR0
Heddema et al., 2015 [66]psittaciformes2008–2013The NetherlandsPCR8bno7
passeriformes2008–2013The NetherlandsPCR5bno7
columbiformes2008–2013The NetherlandsPCR10bno7
ducks2008–2013The NetherlandsPCR1bno5
pheasants2008–2013The NetherlandsPCR1bno5
unspecified poultry2008–2013The NetherlandsPCR5bno7
unspecified birds2008–2013The NetherlandsPCR9bno7
Henrion et al., 2002 [67]psittaciformes2001Belgiumserology1no2
Hulin et al., 2015 [68]ducks2013FrancePCR & serology10PCR8
chickens2013FrancePCR & serology7bPCR4
turkeys2013FrancePCR & serology7bPCR4
guinea fowl2013FrancePCR & serology7bPCR4
unspecified poultry2013FrancePCR & serology7bPCR8
Ionescu et al., 2016 [69]psittaciformesunknownUnited KingdomPCR & serology1bno6
passeriformesunknownUnited KingdomPCR & serology1bno6
columbiformesunknownUnited KingdomPCR & serology1bno6
chickensunknownUnited KingdomPCR & serology1bno6
Ito et al., 2002 [10]psittaciformesunknownJapanserology1no2
Jiménez-Cordero et al., 2015 [70]columbiformesunknownSpainserology1no2
Kaibu et al., 2006 [11]psittaciformes2005JapanPCR & serology2PCR & culture6
Kalmar et al., 2014 [71]columbiformesunknownBelgiumPCR & culture3bPCR & culture21
passeriformesunknownBelgiumPCR & culture3bPCR & culture19
strigiformesunknownBelgiumPCR & culture3bPCR & culture21
Kampinga et al., 2000 [72]sheepunknownThe NetherlandsPCR & serology1no6
Kovacova et al., 2007 [12]psittaciformes2005SlovakiaPCR & serology1serology5
Lagae et al., 2014 [73]chickens2012BelgiumPCR & culture29PCR & culture21
Laroucau et al., 2009 [74]ducks2006FrancePCR & serology5PCR & culture20
Laroucau et al., 2015 [75]chickens2013FrancePCR & serology5bPCR & culture20
ducks2013FrancePCR & serology5bPCR20
Ling et al., 2015 [76]columbiformes2008–2010ChinaAntigen detection & serology19Antigen detection & serology21
Lugert et al., 2017 [77]ducks2010Germanyserology5no8
Mair-Jenkins et al., 2018 [78]columbiformes2015United KingdomPCR & serology4no8
Matsui et al., 2008 [13]unspecified birds2001–2002Japanserology8PCR12
Maza et al., 2016 [79]psittaciformes2014ArgentinaPCR2PCR & immunohistochemistry5
Pandeli et al., 2006 [80]psittaciformesunknownAustraliaPCR1bno5
foxunknownAustraliaPCR1bno5
Petrovay et al., 2008 [81]unspecified poultry2005HungaryPCR & serology1no4
unspecified poultry2007HungaryPCR & serology1no4
Rehn et al., 2013 [82]unspecified birds2013SwedenPCR15bno11
psittaciformes2013SwedenPCR1bPCR5
chickens2013SwedenPCR1bPCR5
Sciacca et al., 2009 [83]psittaciformes2009Belgiumserology1no2
Senn et al., 2008 [84]psittaciformes2007Switzerlandserology1PCR4
Speelberg et al., 2014a [85]musophagiformesunknownThe NetherlandsPCR & serology1no7
columbiformesunknownThe NetherlandsPCR & serology1PCR7
chickensunknownThe NetherlandsPCR & serology1PCR5
Spoorenberg et al., 2016a [86]unspecified birds2007–2010The NetherlandsPCR & serology1no8
psittaciformes2007–2010The NetherlandsPCR & serology1no6
unspecified birds2007–2010The NetherlandsPCR & serology1no4
unspecified birds2007–2010The NetherlandsPCR & serology1no6
columbiformes2007–2010The NetherlandsPCR & serology1no3
unspecified birds2007–2010The NetherlandsPCR & serology1no3
Sprague et al., 2009 [87]dogs2006–2007Germanyculture & serology2PCR & culture10
Telfer et al., 2005 [15]unspecified birds2002Australiaserology28no8
Tiong et al., 2007 [88]ducks2003–2004Australiaserology12culture & serology11
Van Droogenbroeck et al., 2009 [89]turkeysunknownBelgiumPCR & culture1PCR & culture19
Vande Weygaerde et al., 2018 [16]psittaciformesunknownBelgiumPCR & serology1PCR17
Vanrompay et al., 2007 [90]psittaciformesunknownBelgiumPCR & culture6PCR & culture9
Verminnen et al., 2008 [91]turkeysunknownBelgiumPCR, culture & serology3PCR, culture & serology25
Vorimore et al., 2015 [92]ducks2009Belgiumserology4PCR8
Walter et al., 2014 [93]psittaciformesunknownUnited Kingdomserology1no2
Widgren et al., 2009 [94]psittaciformes2008Denmarkserology4unknown10
Williams et al., 2013 [95]ducks2008United Kingdomculture & serology9no10
Yang et al., 2011 [96]peacock2009ChinaPCR & serology4PCR & serology23
  1. a Studies reporting on multiple unrelated case studies
  2. b Cases with multiple associated animal sources