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Table 3 Baseline demographics-, clinical-, biochemical-, brain pathological- and causative pathogen data for the 4 most prevalent specific causes of death occurring within 14 days from admission

From: The cause of death in bacterial meningitis

Baseline characteristics of patients dying from bacterial meningitisBrain herniationGlobal brain injury /unresponsiveIntractable seizuresCirculatory failure
n = 8n = 11n = 6n = 14
Age (years)52 (38 to 75)68 (54 to 74)70 (62 to 83)55 (47 to 69)
Male sex2 (25%)4 (36%)4 (67%)4 (29%)
Survival days2 (1 to 2.8)10 (6 to 18)4.5 (3.8 to 5.8)3 (1.8 to 16.8)
Clinical findings
 Seizures before or on admission0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (17%)1 (7%)
 Glasgow Coma Scale score < 9 (GCS)4 (50%)7 (64%)2 (34%)3 (21%)
 Focal neurological deficits on admission2 (25%)3 (27%)1 (17%)4 (29%)
 Focus of infection (otitis media/sinuitis)3 (38%)2 (18%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Focus of infection (pneumonia)2 (25%)2 (18%)2 (33%)2 (14%)
 Systolic blood pressure on admission (mmHg)145 (120 to 181)172 (120 to 210)160 (122 to 170)106 (84.5 to 122.8)
 Pulse rate (beats/minute)83 (78 to 128)110 (103 to 129)102 (86 to 120)130 (93 to 186)
Laboratory results
 B-leucocytes (109/L)18.3 (8.9 to 24.5)16.5 (12.8 to 26.9)11.6 (7.7 to 25.0)15.7 (6.4 to 20.5)
 B-thrombocytes (109/L)183 (101 to 286)304 (128 to 452)208 (167 to 238)99 (68 to 201)
 B-creatinine (mmol/L)75 (63 to 90)69 (52 to 102)112 (95 to 141)197 (95 to 247)
 Cerebrospinal fluid-leucocytes (106/L)2742 (474 to 54.800)1040 (741 to 4330)932 (115 to 5326)558 (75 to 4566)
 Cerebrospinal fluid-protein (g/L)4.6 (2.8 to 9.9)6.1 (2.1 to 9.1)5.5 (3.6 to 7.2)1.9 (0.6 to 15.9)
Brain imaging pathology
 No. of patient with brain imaging pathology7 (88%)8 (72%)0 (0%)3 (23%)
 Brain infarction or haemorrhage1 (13%)6 (55%)0 (0%)2 (15%)
 Brain Hydrocephalus2 (25%)3 (27%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Brain edema5 (63%)*0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Microbiology
 Patients with positive blood culture5 (63%)6 (55%)4 (67%)11 (79%)
 Streptococcus pneumoniae6 (75%)7 (64%)5 (83%)4 (29%)
 Neisseria meningittidis0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)3 (21%)
 Staphylococcus aureus0 (0%)2 (18%)0 (0%)4 (29%)
 Listeria0 (0%)1 (9%)1 (17%)0 (0%)
 Other streptococci0 (0%)1 (9%)0 (0%)3 (21%)
 Other gram negative bacteria2 (25%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)