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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patient with bacterial meningitis. Demographics-, clinical-, biochemical-, brain pathological- and causative pathogen data in 274 survivors from bacterial meningitis and 84 patients dying from bacterial meningitis

From: The cause of death in bacterial meningitis

 SurvivorsDiedDied from systemic complicationsDied from CNS complicationsp-value
n = 274n = 84n = 33n = 36
Age (years)56 (44 to 66)69 (57 to 78)67 (52 to 76)a69 (54 to 77)a0.0002
Male sex145 (53%)33 (40%)13 (39%)15 (42%)0.08
Admission days16 (12 to 28)8 (3 to 16.8)9 (2 to 16)6 (3 to 14.8)ND
Clinical findings
 Seizures before or on admission28 (10%)5 (6%)1 (3%)2 (6%)0.33
 Glasgow Coma Scale score < 9 (GCS)47 (18%)30 (37%)6 (18%)17 (47%)a< 0.0001
 Focal neurological deficits on admission25 (9%)19 (23%)6 (18%)11 (31%)a0.0006
 Focus of infection (otitis media/sinuitis)73 (27%)14 (17%)2 (6%)a7 (19%)0.026
 Focus of infection (pneumonia)34 (12%)15 (18%)4 (12%)7 (19%)0.49
 Systolic blood pressure on admission (mmHg)138 (122 to 158)135 (110 to 161)120 (90 to 144)a142 (121 to 180)0.0023
 Pulse rate (beats/minute)95 (84 to 110)106 (90 to 128)105 (92 to 130)a106 (88 to 120)a0.0022
Laboratory results
 B-leucocytes (109/L), n = 33217.6 (12.6 to 23.9)15 (9.9 to 20)14.2 (9.2 to 19.0)a15.0 (11.0 to 25.0)0.035
 B-thrombocytes (109/L), n = 307208 (145 to 273)149 (73 to 244)103 (57 to 203)a206 (111 to 311)< 0.0001
 B-creatinine (mmol/L), n = 31878 (63 to 100)100 (77 to 190)162 (76 to 227)a91 (68 to 118)0.0003
 Cerebrospinal fluid-leucocytes (106/L), n = 3462653 (660 to 6152)947 (165 to 5754)600 (164 to 4976)1040 (160 to 6229)0.052
 Cerebrospinal fluid-protein (g/L), n = 3233.6 (1.9 to 6.5)5.2 (1.4 to 8.7)2.6 (0.7 to 7.6)5.9 (2.4 to 8.8)0.13
Brain imaging pathology
 No. of patients with brain imaging pathology62 (23%)35 (42%)9 (27%)23 (64%)a< 0.0001
 Brain infarction or haemorrhage24 (9%)21 (24%)7 (21%)14 (39%)a< 0.0001
 Brain hydrocephalus5 (2%)5 (6%)0 (0%)5 (14%)a0.0002
 Brain edema15 (5.5%)7 (8%)1 (3%)5 (14%)0.10
Microbiology
 Patients with positive blood culture150 (55%)54 (64%)23 (70%)23 (66%)0.18
Streptococcus pneumoniae149 (54%)45 (54%)9 (27%)25 (69%)0.11
Neisseria meningittidis54 (20%)5 (6%)5 (15%)0 (0%)a0.0009
Staphylococcus aureus8 (3%)13 (15%)8 (24%)a5 (14%)< 0.0001
Listeria monocytogenes18 (7%)8 (10%)4 (12%)2 (6%)0.47
 Other streptococci18 (7%)8 (10%)6 (18%)a1 (3%)0.27
 Other gram negative bacteria21 (8%)5 (6%)1 (3%)3 (8%)0.63
  1. aKruskal-Wallis test (medians with quartiles) or Fishers exact test, signicantly different comparing fatal outcome due to systemic and CNS complications to the group of survivors
  2. ND Not Determined