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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of mortality in adult patients with Sepsis: a meta-analysis

Study Design Country Diagnosis of Sepsis Clinical setting Sample size Measured timing for 25 (OH) D Measuring methods for 25 (OH) D Mean age Male Cut-off for 25 (OH) D Outcome data Variables adjusted NOS
         years % pg/ml    
Rech 2014 [20] Retrospective the US SIRS ICU 121 At admission CLIA 65.1 48.8 < 15 Mortality at 1 month Age, African American race, APACHE II score, pulmonary source of sepsis, and any vitamin D supplementation 6
Moromizato 2014 [19] Retrospective the US SIRS ICU 568 At admission CLIA 65.9 43.8 < 30 Mortality during hospitalization, at 1 month, at 3 months Age, gender, race, type (surgical vs medical), and APACHE II score 7
Ala-Kokko 2016 [21] Prospective Finland SIRS ICU 610 At admission EIA 62.4 63 < 10, 10–20, 20–30 Mortality at 3 months APACHE II score, multiorgan failureduring 0–4 days, DM, use of systemic corticosteroids, LOH before ICU admission and AKI 8
De Pascale 2016 [22] Retrospective the US Sepsis-2.0 ICU 107 At admission CLIA 65.7 57.9 <  7 Mortality at 12 months Age, history of CKD, SAPS II, SOFA, and ARDS 6
Trongtrakul 2017 [24] Prospective Thailand Sepsis-2.0 ED 110 At admission CLIA 57.9 49.1 <  12, 12–20 Mortality at 1 month Age, sex and APACHE II score 7
Ding 2017 [23] Retrospective China Sepsis-2.0 ICU 57 At admission CLIA 57.4 57.9 < 20 Mortality at 1 month Age, sex, APACHE II score, and SOFA 6
Suberviola 2019 [26] Prospective Spain Sepsis-3.0 ICU 75 At admission CLIA 64 70.7 <  10 Mortality during hospitalization Age, sex, immunosuppression status, Charlson index, APACHE II score, and hepatic failure 6
Mirijello 2019 [25] Prospective Italy Sepsis-3.0 ICU 88 At admission NA 75 57.9 < 7 Mortality at 1 month, and at 3 months Age, sex, and MEDS score 7
  1. ED Emergency department, ICU Intensive care unit, CLIA Chemiluminescence immunoassay; EIA Enzymatic immunoassay, NA Not available, APACHE II score Score on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, MEDS Mortality in the Emergency Department Sepsis, DM Diabetes mellitus, LOH Length of hospitalization, AKI Acute kidney injury, CKD Chronic kidney disease, ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome, SIRS Systemic inflammatory response syndrome