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Table 2 Factors associated with high risk LLV

From: Factors associated with high-risk low-level viremia leading to virologic failure: 16-year retrospective study of a Chinese antiretroviral therapy cohort

CharacteristicsCase NumberHigh risk LLV case number (%)p-valueUnadjusted analysisAdjusted analysis
OR(95%CI)p-valueaOR(95%CI)p-Value
Gender
 Male2001142(7.10)0.9571.00(reference)   
 Female1258(6.40) 1.03(0.24–4.38)0.967  
 NA292(6.90) 0.92(0.19–4.60)0.922  
Age at HIV diagnosis
 ≤ 50 (years)1618110(6.80)0.6071.00(reference)   
 >  50 (years)50040(8.00) 0.78(0.19–3.30)0.739  
 NA372(5.41) 1.19(0.82–1.74)0.361  
Nation
 Han1840123(6.68)0.0171.00(reference) 1.00(reference) 
 Manchu19524(12.31) 1.96(1.23–3.12)0.0052.03(1.27–3.25)0.003
 Others823(3.66) 0.53(0.17–1.70)0.2870.55(0.17–1.76)0.310
 NA382(5.26) 0.78(0.19–3.26)0.7290.60(0.10–3.64)0.579
Duration on ART
 12–36(months)95457(5.97)0.0041.00(reference) 1.00(reference) 
 36–60(months)67441(6.08) 1.02(0.67–1.54)0.9281.02(0.67–1.54)0.925
 >  60(months)52754(10.25) 1.80(1.22–2.65)0.0031.81(1.21–2.69)0.004
ART regimen
 TDF + 3TC + EFV147784(5.69)< 0.0011.00(reference) 1.00(reference) 
 AZT + 3TC + EFV27620(7.25) 1.30(0.78–2.15)0.3151.31(0.79–2.18)0.301
 AZT + 3TC + NVP29435(11.90) 2.24(1.48–3.40)< 0.0012.26(1.48–3.45)< 0.001
 D4T + 3TC + EFV415(12.20) 2.30(0.88–6.02)0.0892.38(0.90–6.33)0.082
 D4T + 3TC + NVP595(8.47) 1.54(0.60–3.94)0.3721.56(0.61–4.04)0.355
 DDI + a NRTI +a NNRTI83(37.50) 9.95(2.34–42.34)0.0029.96(2.33–42.49)0.002
Transmission route
 Sexual1965132(6.72)0.1331.00(reference) 1.00(reference) 
 Others242(8.33) 1.26(0.29–5.43)0.7541.31(0.30–5.67)0.715
 NA16618(10.84) 1.69(1.00–2.84)0.0481.84(1.05–3.23)0.034
HIV-1 subtype
 B1307(5.38)0.0011.00(reference) 1.00(reference) 
 B′206(30.00) 7.53(2.22–25.57)0.0018.22(2.34–28.92)0.001
 CRF01_AE140399(7.06) 1.33(0.61–2.94)0.4741.32(0.60–2.90)0.495
 CRF07_BC21319(8.92) 1.72(0.70–4.21)0.2351.73(0.71–4.23)0.232
 Others954(4.21) 0.77(0.22–2.72)0.6870.77(0.22–2.73)0.690
 Na29417(5.78) 1.08(0.44–2.67)0.8701.09(0.44–2.71)0.849
Zenith baseline VL
 <  4 (log10 copies/ml)53530(5.61)0.0061.00(reference) 1.00(reference) 
 4–5 (log10 copies/ml)109672(6.57) 1.18(0.76–1.84)0.4521.18(0.76–1.83)0.469
 5–6 (log10 copies/ml)47241(8.69) 1.60(0.98–2.61)0.0591.58(0.96–2.58)0.070
 >  6 (log10 copies/ml)529(17.31) 3.52(1.57–7.90)0.0023.49(1.55–7.83)0.002
Nadir baseline CD4+ cell counts
 >  350 (cells/ml)66534(5.11)0.0581.00(reference) 1.00(reference) 
 200–350 (cells/mm3)80557(7.08) 1.41(0.91–2.19)0.1211.41(0.91–2.19)0.123
 <  200 (cells/mm3)63456(8.83) 1.80(1.16–2.79)0.0091.78(1.14–2.78)0.011
 NA515(9.80) 2.02(0.75–5.40)0.1632.03(0.76–5.43)0.160
  1. Adjusted for gender and age
  2. LLV low level viremia, participants with VL results range of > 50 copies per ml but not defined as virologic failure, OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, NA Not available, ART antiretroviral therapy, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, TDF Tenofovir, 3TC Lamivudine, EFV Efavirenz, AZT Zidovudine, NVP Nevirapine, D4T Stavudine, DDI didanosine, NRTIs nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NNRTIs nonnucleotide Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors