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Table 1 Association between LLV characteristics and virologic failure in the linear mixed-effect model and the Cox proportional hazards model (N = 2155)

From: Factors associated with high-risk low-level viremia leading to virologic failure: 16-year retrospective study of a Chinese antiretroviral therapy cohort

LLV groupaCase NumberCox proportional hazards modelLinear mixed-effect model
HR (95%CI)p-valueEstimate (95%CI)p-value
<  50 (copies/ml)13201(reference) 0(reference) 
50–200 (copies/ml)4350.72(0.31–1.68)0.4530.00(− 0.02–0.02)0.819
blipb3180.68(0.26–1.80)0.4380.00(− 0.02–0.01)0.765
3–6 (months)c471.58(0.37–6.80)0.5410.02(−0.01–0.06)0.213
6–12 (months)d531.02(1.01–1.03)0.975−0.02(− 0.05–0.02)0.325
>  12 (months)e171.02(1.01–1.03)0.986−0.02(− 0.08–0.04)0.572
200–400 (copies/ml)1501.90(0.81–4.43)0.1390.03(0.00–0.06)0.045
3–6 (months)c141.02(1.01–1.03)0.979−0.02(−0.10–0.06)0.637
6–12 (months)d172.12(0.28–15.99)0.4680.04(−0.03–0.11)0.246
>  12 (months)e113.43(0.46–25.54)0.2290.07(−0.01–0.16)0.094
400–1000 (copies/ml)1195.93(3.13–11.23)0.0000.12(0.09–0.15)0.000
3–6 (months)c186.59(1.94–22.34)0.0020.15(0.07–0.22)0.000
6–12 (months)d145.19(1.22–22.18)0.0260.12(0.04–0.21)0.004
>  12 (months)e99.63(2.82–32.95)0.0000.32(0.21–0.42)0.000
HLB > 1000 (copies/ml)1312.84(1.27–6.34)0.0110.04(0.01–0.07)0.005
3–6 (months)c166.20(1.46–26.27)0.0130.11(0.04–0.19)0.003
6–12 (months)d119.74(2.82–33.66)0.0000.25(0.17–0.34)0.000
>  12 (months)e67.52(1.01–55.84)0.0490.15(0.03–0.27)0.012
  1. a: LLV group is defined according to the Zenith VL during ART, subgroup is further divided according to the duration of LLV at any level between 50 and 1000 copies/ml. b: single viral blip, c: pLLV lasts 3 months, d: pLLV lasts 6 months, e: pLLV lasts more than 12 months. VL viral load, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, HLB high level blip. The bold data in the table shows the subgroup with increased risk of the subsequent VF, which we defined as high-risk LLV