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Table 1 Distribution of rubella IgM antibody levels by sex, age, month and year in measles-negative serum samples between 2005 and September 2016

From: Epidemiology of acute rubella infection in Zambia during the pre-vaccination period (2005–2016) as a baseline for monitoring rubella epidemiology in the post-rubella vaccine introduction era

FactorTotal testedRubella IgM
PositiveNegativeEquivocal
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Total sample4497 (100)1313 (29.2)2928 (65.1)256 (5.7)
Sex
 Male2333 (100)647 (27.7)1545 (66.2)141 (6.0)
 Female2160 (100)666 (30.8)1379 (63.8)115 (5.3)
Age (years)
  < 1254 (100)19 (7.5)230 (90.6)5 (2.0)
 1–41336 (100)278 (20.8)1001 (74.9)57 (4.3)
 5–91322 (100)475 (35.9)744 (56.3)103 (7.8)
 10–14739 (100)309 (41.8)380 (51.4)50 (6.8)
 15–24414 (100)126 (30.4)263 (63.5)25 (6.0)
 25+114 (100)14 (12.3)94 (82.5)6 (5.3)
Month
 January238 (100)52 (21.8)178 (74.8)8 (3.4)
 February300 (100)43 (14.3)248 (82.7)9 (3.0)
 March342 (100)57 (16.7)273 (79.8)12 (3.5)
 April282 (100)37 (13.1)235 (83.3)10 (3.5)
 May310 (100)27 (8.7)268 (86.5)15 (4.8)
 June307 (100)65 (21.2)229 (74.6)13 (4.2)
 July435 (100)169 (38.9)240 (55.2)26 (6.0)
 August432 (100)169 (39.1)233 (53.9)30 (6.9)
 September490 (100)166 (33.9)297 (60.6)27 (5.5)
 October552 (100)244 (44.2)263 (47.6)45 (8.2)
 November528 (100)204 (38.6)279 (52.8)45 (8.5)
 December281 (100)80 (28.5)185 (65.8)16 (5.7)
Year
 2005580 (100)190 (32.8)342 (59.0)48 (8.3)
 2006237 (100)72 (30.4)151 (63.7)14 (5.9)
 2007425 (100)101 (23.8)299 (70.4)25 (5.9)
 2008731 (100)255 (34.9)421 (57.6)55 (7.5)
 2009316 (100)76 (24.1)239 (75.6)1 (0.3)
 2010357 (100)16 (4.5)334 (93.6)7 (2.0)
 2011175 (100)62 (35.5)99 (56.6)14 (8.0)
 2012341 (100)150 (44.0)165 (48.4)26 (7.6)
 2013358 (100)177 (49.4)147 (41.1)34 (9.5)
 2014284 (100)87 (30.6)187 (65.8)10 (3.5)
 2015394 (100)98 (24.9)281 (71.3)15 (3.8)
 2016299 (100)29 (9.7)263 (88.0)7 (2.3)