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Table 2 Prevalence, clinical setting, infection site of Healthcare-Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use by year of survey

From: A 2-year point-prevalence surveillance of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in Ferrara University Hospital, Italy

 20162018Total
Total No. of Patients, n (%)530 (48.1)572 (51.9)1102 (100.0)
HAI Prevalence (at least one), n (%)52 (9.8)63 (11.0)115 (10.4)
Antimicrobials use prevalence (at least one), n (%)239 (45.0)248 (42.8)487 (44.2)
HAI by clinical setting, n (%)*5263115
Surgery9 (17.3)6 (9.5)15 (13.0)
Medicine27 (51.9)40 (63.5)67 (58.3)
Geriatrics0 (0.0)1 (1.6)1 (0.9)
Intensive Care7 (13.5)7 (11.1)14 (12.2)
Gynaecology/Obstetrics0 (0.0)3 (4.8)3 (2.6)
Paediatrics/Neonatology1 (1.9)2 (3.2)3 (2.6)
Rehabilitation8 (1.5)4 (6.3)12 (10.4)
Post-acute care0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Total No. of HAI6374137
HAI by infection site, n (%)
 Pneumonia17 (27.0)24 (32.4)41 (29.9)
 Bloodstream Infections10 (15.9)16 (21.6)26 (19.0)
 Urinary Tract Infections‡16 (25.4)5 (6.8)21 (15.4)
 Gastro-intestinal system infections6 (9.5)8 (10.8)14 (10.2)
 Surgical site infections4 (6.3)7 (9.5)11 (8.0)
 Clinical sepsis4 (6.3)4 (5.4)8 (5.8)
 Infections of ear, nose, throat, larynx and mouth1 (1.6)5 (6.8)6 (4.4)
 Cellulitis, wound, deep soft tissue not involving bone, not related to surgery0 (0.0)4 (5.4)4 (2.9)
 Lower respiratory tract infections2 (3.2)1 (1.4)3 (2.2)
 Others3 (4.8)0 (0.0)3 (2.2)
Total No. of antimicrobials348345693
ATC Antimicrobial classes, n(%)
 J01CR Combinations of penicillins, incl. Beta-lactamase inhibitors95 (27.3)82 (23.8)177 (25.6)
 J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins72 (20.7)78 (22.6)150 (21.6)
 J01MA Fluorochinolones28 (8.0)24 (7.0)52 (7.5)
 J01FA Macrolides13 (3.7)20 (5.8)33 (4.7)
 J02 AC Triazole derivatives15 (4.3)17 (4.9)32 (4.6)
 J01DH Carbapenems16 (4.6)15 (4.3)31 (4.5)
 J01XD Imidazole derivatives17 (4.9)14 (4.1)31 (4.5)
 J01XX08 Linezolid13 (3.7)16 (4.6)29 (4.1)
 J01XA Glycopeptide antibacterials12 (3.4)15 (4.3)27 (3.8)
 J01DB First-generation cephalosporins11 (3.2)14 (4.1)25 (3.6)
 J01FF Lincosamides9 (2.6)8 (2.3)17 (2.5)
 J01CA Penicillins with extended spectrum8 (2.3)7 (2.0)15 (2.2)
 J01GB Aminoglycosides12 (3.4)2 (0.6)14 (2.0)
 A07AA Intestinal anti-infectives antibiotics0 (0.0)8 (2.3)8 (1.1)
 J01XX09 Daptomycin3 (0.9)4 (1.2)7 (1.0)
 Others24 (6.9)21 (6.1)45 (6.5)
  1. Abbreviations: HAI Healthcare-Associated Infection, AMU Antimicrobial Use, ATC Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification. *Percentages have been calculated on HAI prevalence in 2016 and 2018, respectively
  2. p-value = not significant; ‡ p-value < 0.05