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Table 3 FPEs with positive and negative PCR for influenza by sex, age groups, and clinical symptoms enrolled in the study, Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal, 2013–2016

From: Performance of case definitions and clinical predictors for influenza surveillance among patients followed in a rural cohort in Senegal

  All cases of FPEs (n=1653) FPEs with positive PCR for influenza A or B (n=357) FPEs with negative PCR for influenza A or B (n=1296) P-values
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Gender
 Female 827 (50.0) 181 (51.0) 646 (50.0) 0.77
Age groups (years)
 0 – <  2 302 (18.3) 44 (12.3) 258 (20.0) 0.01
 2 - <  5 355 (21.4) 78 (22.0) 277 (21.3)  
 5 - <  15 561 (34.0) 129 (36.1) 432 (33.3)  
 15- < 50 366 (22.1) 85 (24.0) 281 (21.6)  
 ≥ 50 69 (4.2) 21 (6.0) 48 (4.0)  
Mean age (SD°) 12.5 ± (14.6) 14.0 ± (15.3) 12.1 ± (14.5)  
Median age (IIQ¶) 7.1 ± (3.0–16.0) 8.1 (3.6–18.0) 7.0 (2.3–15.2)  
Clinical symptoms
 Headache1 1184/1286 (92.1) 291/301 (96.6) 893/985 (90.6) < 0.001
 Cough 914 (55.3) 289 (81.0) 625 (48.2) < 0.001
 Asthenia grade 0 229 (14.0) 43 (12.0) 186 (14.3) 0.07
 Asthenia grade 1 95 (6.0) 13 (3.6) 82 (6.3)  
 Asthenia grade 2 424 (25.6) 87 (24.4) 337 (26.0)  
 Asthenia grade 3 905 (55.0) 214 (60.0) 691 (53.3)  
 Anorexia 759 (46.0) 180 (50.4) 579 (45.0) 0.05
 Nasal discharge 697 (42.2) 254 (71.1) 443 (34.2) < 0.0001
 Myalgia1 604/992 (61.0) 132/235 (56.2) 472/757 (62.3) 0.18
 Chills 416 (25.2) 86 (24.1) 330 (25.5) 0.60
 Nausea/vomiting 326 (20.0) 51 (14.3) 275 (21.2) < 0.01
 Sore throat1 187/996 (19.0) 68/235 (29.0) 119/761 (15.6) < 0.001
 Sweats 171 (10.3) 35 (10.0) 136 (10.6) 0.71
 Arthralgia1 157/996 (15.8) 37/209 (18.0) 120/787 (15.2) 0.52
 Diarrhea 154 (9.3) 20 (5.6) 134 (10.3) < 0.01
 Abdominal pain 59 (3.6) 7 (2.0) 52 (4.0) 0.06
 Dyspnea 47 (3.0) 19 (5.4) 28 (2.2) < 0.01
  1. FPEs febrile pathological episodes, SD Standard Deviation, IIQ¶ interquartile range
  2. 1: These symptoms were not collected or were incomplete in children aged under 5 years
  3. -Headache: 356 FPEs (21.5%) missing in children under 5 years
  4. -Sore throat, Myalgia and Arthralgia symptoms: 657 FPEs (40.0%) missing in all children under 5 years for each of these 3 symptoms