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Table 1 Comparison of candidemia patients among the survival and death group

From: Combination of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) could predict the severity and prognosis of candidemia more accurately than the Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score

Variables All patients
(n=70)
Death group
(n=25)
Survival group
(n=45)
p-value
Mean age (years±SD) 72.4±12.1 73.2±13.5 71.9±11.4 0.657
Median (range, years) 73 (36–93)    
Male gender (%) 40 (57) 11 (44) 29 (64) 0.132
Outcome (%)
 30-days mortality 25 (36)   
 In-hospital mortality 30 (43)   
Length of stay
 Median days (range) 67 (10–418) 56 (11–205) 72 (10–418)
 Mean days (±SD) 83.1±72.4 64.7±47.5 93.3±82.5 0.106
Performance status
  ECOG-PS (mean±SD) 3.3±0.8 3.8±0.9 3.0±0.4 < 0.001
  0–1 (%) 2 (3) 0 2 (4)  
  2 11 (16) 0 11 (24) < 0.001
  3 20 (29) 4 (16) 16 (36) (3,4 v.s.0–2)
  4 37 (52) 21 (84) 16 (36)  
 KPS (mean±SD) 42.6±17.1 30.3±13.7 49.3±14.7 < 0.001
  80–100 (%) 2 (3) 0 2 (4)  
  60–70 11 (16) 0 11 (24) < 0.001
  40–50 38 (54) 12 (48) 26 (59) (< 50 v.s.50)
  20–30 15 (21) 9 (36) 6 (13)  
  10 4 (6) 4 (16) 0  
Site of infection (%)
 CRBSI 36 (52) 11 (44) 25 (56)  
 Others 5 (7) 3 (12) 2 (4) 0.169
 Unknown 29 (41) 12 (48) 17 (38)  
Condition
 Mental altered 33 (47) 18 (72) 15 (33) 0.003
 Shock 15 (21) 7 (28) 8 (18) 0.134
 DIC 8 (11) 3 (12) 5 (11) 1.000
 Endophthalmitis 8/51 (16) 0/10 (0) 8/41 (20) 0.19
Comorbidity (%)
 Chronic heart failure 9 (13) 9 (36) 0 < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 19 (27) 7 (28) 12 (27) 1.000
 Kidney diseases 13 (19) 7 (28) 6 (13) 0.199
 Hemodialysis 6 (9) 3 (12) 3 (7) 0.659
 Hepatic diseases 5 (7) 2 (8) 3 (7) 1.000
 Malignancy 38 (54) 15 (60) 23 (51) 0.617
 Chronic respiratory disease 6 (9) 3 (12) 3 (7) 0.659
 Gastroesophageal reflex disease 3 (4) 1 (4) 2 (4) 1.000
 Dementia 4 (6) 3 (12) 1 (2) 0.127
 Cerebrovascular diseases 13 (19) 4 (16) 9 (20) 0.759
 Paralysis 2 (3) 1 (4) 1 (2) 1.000
 Collagen vascular disease 6 (9) 4 (16) 2 (4) 0.177
Duration until treatment from positive blood culture within 3 days (%) 13 (19) 6 (24) 7 (16) 0.523
External device
 CVC /CV port 53 (76) 20 (80) 33 (73) 0.577
Initial antifungal treatment (%)
 Echinocandins 44 (63) 11 (44) 33 (73) 0.021
 L-AMB 18 (26) 8 (32) 10 (22) 0.403
 Azole 3 (4) 2 (8) 1 (2) 0.289
 Others 5 (7) 4 (16) 1 (2) 0.051
Inappropriate initial therapy 4 (6) 3 (12) 1 (2) 0.127
Evaluation of severity
 APACHE II (mean±SD) 12.9±4.7 15.3±4.1 11.6±4.5 0.001
 APACHE II 13 (n,%) 40 20 (80) 20 (44) 0.005
 SOFA score (mean±SD) 3.9±3.2 5.7±3.1 2.9±2.9 < 0.001
 SOFA score 5 (n,%) 27 (39) 18 (72) 9 (20) < 0.001
 Charlson Comorbidity Index (mean±SD) 3.5±2.7 4.6±2.4 3.0±2.7 0.012
 Charlson Comorbidity Index3 (n, %) 41 (59) 21 (84) 20 (44) < 0.001
Detection of candida spp. (n)
C. albicans 27 12 15 0.306
C. parapsilosis 20 6 14 0.591
C. glabrata 14 3 11 0.35
C. tropicalis 7 3 4 0.694
C. guillermondi 5 1 4 0.648
C. dubliniensis 1 1 0 0.357
Detection of C. albicans (v.s. non-C. albicans)   12 (48) 15 (33) 0.306
Laboratory data (Mean±SD)
 White blood cell counts (/μl) 10,578.1±6802 12,838.8±7898 9322.2±5833 0.037
 Hemoglobin (g/dl) 9.6±1.7 9.6±1.8 9.6±1.7 0.896
 Hematocrit (%) 29.0±5.2 28.8±5.4 29.1±5.2 0.823
 Platelet counts (× 104/μl) 19.5±11.3 17.7±11.8 20.5±11.1 0.338
 Total bilirubin (mg/dl) 1.4±1.8 17.7±11.8 20.5±11.1 0.338
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dl) 19.5±11.3 1.6±1.7 1.3±1.8 0.514
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.4±1.7 1.6±1.7 1.3±1.8 0.514
 Sodium (mEq/l) 135.5±7.4 133.5±6.6 136.7±7.6 0.082
 Potassium (mEq/l) 4.1±0.6 4.0±0.6 4.0±0.6 0.363
 Albumin (g/dL) 2.4±0.6 2.2±0.4 2.4±0.6 0.059
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 7.3±5.2 10.1±5.8 5.7±3.9 < 0.001
 β-D-glucan (pg/mL) 847.1±1179.9 831.6±1310.5 855.8±1121.8 0.997
  1. *Two patients had multi-pathogens in blood culture
  2. *CRBSI Catheter related blood stream infection, CVC Central venous catheter, DIC Disseminated intravascular coagulation, ECOG Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, KPS Karnofsy performance status, L-AMB Liposomal amphotericin B, PS Performance status, SD Standard deviation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment