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Table 2 Clinical Characteristics of the Patients by Treatment Groups

From: Effect of Arbidol (Umifenovir) on COVID-19: a randomized controlled trial

Characteristics All patients (n = 100) Arbidol group (n = 50) KALETRA group (n = 50) P Value
Signs and Symptoms, n (%)
 Fever 46 (46) 19 (38) 27 (54) 0.1
 Cough 80 (80) 41 (82) 39 (78) 0.6
 Shortness of breath 66 (66) 33 (66) 33 (66) 0.99
 Weakness 61 (61) 35 (70) 26 (52) 0.6
 Anosmia 10 (10) 6 (12) 4 (8) 0.5
 Diarrhea 15 (15) 12 (24) 3 (6) 0.01
 Nausea and vomiting 26 (26) 11 (22) 15 (30) 0.3
 Myalgia 45 (45) 20 (40) 25 (50) 0.3
 Headache 17 (17) 13 (26) 4 (8) 0.01
 Others 50 (50) 18 (36) 32 (64) 0.005
Hospitalization location, n (%) 88 (100) 43 (100) 45 (100) 0.09
 ICU, n (%) 43 (48.8) 8 (18.6) 3 (6.7)  
 Ward, n (%) 45 (51.1) 35 (81.4) 42 (93.3)  
Hospitalization duration, days (SD) 8.4 (5.1) 7.2 (4.7) 9.6 (5.2) 0.02
Time to stop fever, days (SD) 2.9 (1.3) 2.7 (1.1) 3.1 (1.4) 0.2
Illness severity, n (%)     0.9
 Mild 19 (19) 9 (18) 10 (20)  
 Moderate 58 (58) 29 (58) 29 (58)  
 Severe 23 (23) 12 (24) 11 (22)  
CT scan in beginning, n (%) 100 (100) 50 (100) 50 (100) 0.9
Involvement type, n (%)
 Mild 11 (11) 5 (10) 6 (12)  
 Moderate 66 (66) 33 (66) 33 (66)  
 severe 23 (23) 12 (24) 11 (22)  
CT scan in 30th day, n (%) 97 (100) 49 (100) 48 (100) 0.004
Involvement type, n (%)
 Mild 63 (64.9) 38 (80.9) 25 (53.2)  
 Moderate 31 (31.9) 9 (19.1) 22 (46.8)  
 severe 0 (0) 0 (0) 0  
CXR in beginning, n (%) 100 (100) 50 (100) 50 (100) 0.3
Involvement type, n (%)
 Mild 25 (25) 11 (22) 14 (28)  
 Moderate 66 (66) 36 (72) 30 (60)  
 severe 9 (9) 3 (6) 6 (12)  
CXR in 30th day, n (%) 97 (100) 49 (100) 48 (100) < 0.001
Involvement type, n (%)
 Mild 75 (77.3) 44 (95.7) 31 (67.4)  
 Moderate 17 (17.5) 2 (4.3) 15 (32.6)  
 severe 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Intubation, n (%) 5 (5) 3 (6) 2 (4) 0.6
Mechanical Ventilation, n (%) 5 (5) 3 (6) 2 (4) 0.6
Mortality, n (%) 3 (3) 1 (2) 2 (4) 0.5
Medication side effect, n (%) 15 (100) 3 (100) 12 (100) 0.1
 Nausea/vomiting, n (%) 8 (53.5) 1 (33.3) 7 (58.3)  
 Dizziness, n (%) 3 (20) 0 (0) 3 (25)  
 Others, n (%) 4 (26.7) 2 (66.7) 2 (16.7)  
  1. Note: Data are presented as mean (standard deviation) or n (%)
  2. Abbreviation: ICU Intensive Care Unit, CT Computerized Tomography, CXR Chest X-ray, SD Standard Deviation