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Table 1 The laboratory test results of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China

From: Temporal changes in laboratory markers of survivors and non-survivors of adult inpatients with COVID-19

Laboratory markers Normal reference range First tests Last tests
Survivors Non-survivors P value Survivors Non-survivors P value
WBC, ×109/L 3.5–9.5 6.22 10.86 ↑ < 0.001 ** 6.34 14.72 ↑ < 0.001 **
Lymphocyte count, ×109/L 0.8–4 1.04 0.62 ↓ < 0.001 ** 1.33 0.55 ↓ < 0.001 **
Lymphocyte percentage, % 20–40 20.82 6.70 ↓ < 0.001 ** 24.31 4.56 ↓ < 0.001 **
Neutrophil count, ×109/L 2–7 4.74 9.77 ↑ < 0.001 ** 4.39 13.65 ↑ < 0.001 **
Neutrophil percentage, % 50–70 71.39 ↑ 88.14 ↑ < 0.001 ** 65.22 91.31 ↑ < 0.001 **
Monocyte count, ×109/L 0.12–1.2 0.37 0.41 0.457 0.45 0.40 0.378
Monocyte percentage, % 3–12 6.53 4.47 0.002 * 7.62 3.27 < 0.001 **
Eosinophil count, ×109/L 0.02–0.5 0.05 0.03 0.292 0.13 0.05 0.001 *
Eosinophil percentage, % 0.5–5 0.88 0.42 ↓ 0.015 * 2.34 0.63 < 0.001 **
Basophil count, ×109/L 0–0.1 0.02 0.03 0.35 0.03 0.03 0.682
Basophil percentage, % 0–1 0.37 0.27 0.152 0.50 0.28 0.008 *
Platelet count, × 109/L 125–350 214.66 178.77 0.1 232.63 125.48 < 0.001 **
MPV, fL 7–11 9.23 10.01 0.003 * 9.20 11.11 ↑ < 0.001 **
PDW 15–17 16.18 16.63 < 0.001 ** 16.14 16.74 < 0.001 **
Thrombocytocrit, % 0.1–0.282 0.19 0.18 0.41 0.21 0.14 < 0.001 **
Platelet-large cell count, ×109/L 30–90 43.45 45.79 0.606 47.80 39.58 0.066
Platelet-large cell percentage, % 11–45 21.60 26.75 0.003 * 21.22 34.67 < 0.001 **
hs-CRP, mg/L < 3 59.58 ↑ 191.76 ↑ < 0.001 ** 22.36 ↑ 248.49 ↑ < 0.001 **
PCT, ng/mL 0–0.05 0.30 ↑ 0.89 ↑ 0.019 * 0.28 ↑ 23.36 ↑ 0.009 *
IL-6, pg/ml 0–7 40.65 ↑ 76.10 ↑ 0.137 111.77 ↑ 1012.76 ↑ 0.13
PT, s 11–15 15.58 ↑ 23.15 ↑ 0.089 14.76 19.57 ↑ 0.002 *
PT-INR 0.8–1.2 1.22 ↑ 2.19 ↑ 0.132 1.14 1.65 ↑ 0.003 *
PTA, % 80–150 78.48 ↓ 52.83 ↓ < 0.001 ** 90.39 57.67 ↓ < 0.001 **
TT, s 13–20 20.17 ↑ 19.64 0.864 17.59 18.94 0.139
aPTT, s 28–44 42.52 46.61 ↑ 0.285 41.62 47.07 ↑ 0.245
Fibrinogen, g/L 2–4 4.38 ↑ 5.07 ↑ 0.098 4.13 ↑ 4.54 ↑ 0.248
D-dimer, μg/mL 0–0.5 2.83 ↑ 9.92 ↑ 0.002 * 1.58 ↑ 12.24 ↑ < 0.001 **
FDP, μg/mL 0–5 15.55 ↑ 86.68 ↑ 0.014 * 7.32 ↑ 75.67 ↑ < 0.001 **
Antithrombin III, % 80–120 91.71 86.19 0.179 95.97 75.21 ↓ 0.001 *
RBC, × 1012 3.5–5.5 4.11 3.86 0.143 3.80 3.21 ↓ 0.003 *
Haemoglobin #, g/L 124.2–165.3 122.34 ↓ 115.27 ↓ 0.164 111.85 ↓ 94.73 ↓ 0.005 *
Haematocrit, % 40–54 37.97 ↓ 36.06 ↓ 0.217 35.37 ↓ 30.31 ↓ 0.006 *
MCV, fL 82–100 92.61 92.89 0.827 93.41 94.43 0.412
MCH, pg 27–34 29.66 29.89 0.621 29.49 29.36 0.775
MCHC, g/L 316–354 320.24 321.52 0.574 315.61 ↓ 310.94 ↓ 0.109
RDW-CV, % 11.5–14.5 13.04 12.93 0.618 13.65 13.44 0.471
RDW-SD, fL 35–56 42.21 41.66 0.474 44.40 44.00 0.689
nRBC, ×109/L   0.01 ↑ 0.01 ↑ 0.981 0 0.06 ↑ 0.033 *
nRBC%, /100WBC   0.15 ↑ 0.04 ↑ 0.632 0 0.29 ↑ 0.011 *
Ret, ×1012 0.02–0.2 0.04 0.05 0.488 0.07 0.06 0.208
Ret%, % 0.3–3 1.09 1.31 0.133 1.98 1.89 0.793
lf-Ret%, % 80–100 93.13 90.54 0.035 * 91.54 87.72 0.004 *
mf-Ret%, % 0–20 6.38 8.93 0.011 * 7.96 10.71 0.009 *
hf-Ret%, % 0–5 0.49 0.53 0.893 0.51 1.57 0.025 *
IRF, % 0–25 6.87 9.46 0.035 * 8.46 12.28 0.004 *
SpO2, % 95–98 90.35 ↓ 90.72 ↓ 0.926 94.89 ↓ 87.54 ↓ 0.119
TCO2, mmol/L 22–29 21.85 ↓ 19.60 ↓ 0.333 27.88 23.48 0.002 *
PaO2, mmHg 80–105 96.64 76.10 ↓ 0.205 101.79 87.55 0.351
PaCO2, mmHg 35–45 33.51 ↓ 28.45 ↓ 0.095 45.16 ↑ 48.43 ↑ 0.539
Acidity-basicity 7.35–7.45 7.40 7.44 0.268 7.39 7.31 ↓ 0.035 *
ABR, mmol/L 22–27 20.82 ↓ 18.72 ↓ 0.351 26.49 22.01 0.001 *
BEEcf, mmol/L -2-3 −3.43 ↓ −4.95 ↓ 0.529 1.96 −3.51 ↓ 0.001 *
PCO2, mmol/L 22–29 20.57 ↓ 17.58 ↓ 0.009 * 22.36 19.40 ↓ 0.002 *
PUA, μmol/L 210–430 330.99 372.57 0.5 290.85 454.43 ↑ 0.007 *
Plasma creatinine, μmol/L 53–123 322.79 ↑ 459.80 ↑ 0.303 236.91 ↑ 389.64 ↑ 0.081
PUN, mmol/L 2.9–8.2 11.01 ↑ 17.86 ↑ 0.093 9.12 ↑ 25.45 ↑ < 0.001 **
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 > 90 87.85 ↓ 69.88 ↓ 0.168 101.30 ↑ 46.13 ↓ < 0.001 **
Cystatin C, mg/L 0–1.5 2.48 ↑ 3.28 ↑ 0.24 2.38 ↑ 3.67 ↑ 0.03 *
Sodium, mmol/L 135–145 139.43 140.32 0.39 139.85 144.40 0.034 *
Potassium, mmol/L 3.5–5.5 4.06 4.11 0.828 4.25 4.67 0.096
Total calcium, mmol/L 2.08–2.6 2.10 1.97 ↓ 0.027 * 2.19 1.94 ↓ < 0.001 **
Phosphorus, mmol/L 1–1.6 1.23 1.50 0.234 1.27 1.69 ↑ 0.029 *
Magnesium, mmol/L 0.6–1.1 0.97 1.01 0.562 0.90 1.02 < 0.001 **
Chlorine, mmol/L 95–110 103.52 104.18 0.695 104.00 105.77 0.437
hs-cTnI, ng/mL 0–0.023 0.03 ↑ 0.01 0.313 0.02 0.37 ↑ 0.166
Myoglobin, ng/mL 23–112 195.78 ↑ 342.42 ↑ 0.126 233.33 ↑ 547.84 ↑ 0.005 *
NT-proBNP, ng/L 0–900 5179.35 ↑ 6173.35 ↑ 0.784 6204.18 ↑ 12,539.35 ↑ 0.156
LDH, U/L 80–285 276.57 465.15 ↑ < 0.001 ** 203.73 602.65 ↑ < 0.001 **
HCA, μmol/L 0–15 12.96 10.02 0.242 14.23 12.81 0.606
CK, U/L 50–310 130.39 373.00 ↑ 0.192 70.34 402.55 ↑ 0.006 *
CKI, ng/mL 0–7.2 8.15 ↑ 5.60 0.466 3.84 25.03 ↑ 0.041 *
Total bilirubin, μmol/L 0–25 13.44 17.45 0.351 14.89 21.59 0.292
Direct bilirubin, μmol/L 0–6.84 6.98 ↑ 8.09 ↑ 0.758 5.82 14.27 ↑ 0.09
Total bile acid, μmol/L 0–10 11.10 ↑ 5.44 0.51 5.16 7.78 0.276
Prealbumin, mg/L 160–450 179.61 87.87 ↓ < 0.001 ** 224.84 98.51 ↓ < 0.001 **
Total protein, g/L 60–85 70.26 65.30 0.01 * 72.05 62.88 0.002 *
Albumin, g/L 34–55 36.60 30.27 ↓ < 0.001 ** 36.64 26.99 ↓ < 0.001 **
Globulin, g/L 20–40 33.65 35.04 0.304 35.40 35.89 0.795
AGR 1.2–2.4 1.11 ↓ 0.89 ↓ 0.001 * 1.08 ↓ 0.80 ↓ < 0.001 **
ALT, U/L 9–50 32.19 34.57 0.741 27.47 46.62 0.202
AST, U/L 15–40 34.49 47.91 ↑ 0.065 26.75 82.59 ↑ 0.015 *
ALP, U/L 45–125 64.30 77.17 0.243 68.48 98.29 0.004 *
GGT, U/L 10–60 52.87 64.15 ↑ 0.511 45.22 51.70 0.476
Cholinesterase, U/L 4500–12,000 5844.80 4521.15 0.003 * 5849.76 3611.55 ↓ < 0.001 **
Glucose, mmol/L 3.9–6.1 6.93 ↑ 8.11 ↑ 0.22 6.04 8.39 ↑ < 0.001 **
Triglyceride, mmol/L < 2.3 1.67 1.45 0.527 1.65 2.15 0.044 *
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 0–5.1 3.92 3.26 0.015 * 4.34 2.92 < 0.001 **
HDL-C, mmol/L 0.8–2 0.95 0.86 0.323 1.07 0.79 ↓ 0.006 *
non-HDL-C, mmol/L 2.2–5.8 2.98 2.40 0.029 * 3.27 2.13 ↓ < 0.001 **
LDL-C, mmol/L 0–3.36 2.46 1.91 0.021 * 2.80 1.50 < 0.001 **
sdLDL-C, mmol/L 0.23–1.37 0.73 0.48 0.028 * 0.92 0.47 0.001 *
Apolipoprotein A1, g/L 1–1.6 0.90 ↓ 0.76 ↓ 0.057 1.07 0.61 ↓ < 0.001 **
Apolipoprotein B, g/L 0.6–1.1 0.84 0.73 0.087 0.87 0.68 0.006 *
Lipoprotein(a), mg/L 0–300 185.60 189.68 0.938 208.12 133.05 0.129
  1. above normal reference range. below normal reference range. * P value less than 0.05 and more than 0.001. ** P value less than 0.001. # The normal reference range of haemoglobin was calculated based on the number of female and male, cause the normal reference range of haemoglobin of female was 115–150 g/L, the normal reference range of haemoglobin of male was 130–175 g/L. ABR Actual bicarbonate radical; AGR Albumin-globulin ratio; ALP Alkaline phosphatase; ALT Alanine aminotransferase; aPTT Activated partial thromboplastin time; AST Aspartate aminotransferase; BEEcf Base excess in the extracellular fluid compartment; CK Creatine kinase; CKI Creatine kinase isoenzymes; eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate; FDP Fibrin (ogen) degradation product; GGT γ-Glutamyl transferase; HCA Homocysteic acid; HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hf-Ret% High fluorescent reticulocyte percentage; hs-CRP Hypersensitive C-reactive protein; hs-cTnI High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I; IL-6 Interleukin-6; IRF Immature reticulocyte fraction; LDH Lactate dehydrogenase; LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; lf-Ret% Low fluorescent reticulocyte percentage; MCH Mean corpuscular volume; MCHC Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration; MCV Mean corpuscular volume; mf-Ret% Middle fluorescent reticulocyte percentage; MPV Mean platelet volume; non-HDL-C Nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol; nRBC Nucleated red blood cell count; nRBC% Nucleated red blood cell percentage; NT-proBNP N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide; PaCO2 Partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2 Partial pressure of oxygen; PCO2 Plasma carbon dioxide; PCT Procalcitonin; PDW Platelet distribution width; PT Prothrombin time; PTA Prothrombin activity; PT-INR Prothrombin international normalized ratio; PUA Plasma uric acid; PUN Plasma urea nitrogen; RBC Red blood cell count; RDW-CV Red blood cell distribution width - coefficient of variation; RDW-SD Red blood cell distribution width - standard deviation; Ret Reticulocyte count; Ret% Reticulocyte percentage; sdLDL-C Small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SpO2 Oxygen saturation; TCO2 Total carbon dioxide; TT Thrombin time; WBC White blood cell count