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Table 2 Bacterial and viral findings by pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization

From: Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage among Bhutanese children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia: serotypes and viral co-infection

  No S. pneumoniae colonization n = 45 (37.2%) S. pneumoniae colonization n = 76 (62.8%) p-valuea
Bacterial findings
Positive bacterial blood culture (of any cause) 1/39 (2.6%) 5/62 (8.1%)b 0.401
Positive S. pneumoniae (blood culture) 0/39 (0%) 1/62 (1.6%) 1.000
Positive S. pneumoniae (dry blood spot, RT-PCR) 0/38 (0%) 1/64 (1.6%) 1.000
Positive for atypical bacteria in NPW
 Bordetella pertussis 1/40 (2.5%) 2/70 (2.9%) 1.000
 Chlamydophila pneumophila 0/40 (0%) 0/70 (0%) NA
Legionella pneumophila 0/40 (0%) 0/70 (0%) NA
 Mycoplasma pneumoniae 0/40 (0%) 1/70 (1.4%) 1.000
Viral findings
 At least one virus identified in NPW 36/40 (90.0%) 62/70 (88.6%) 1.000
 Multiple (≥2) viruses identified in NPW 13/36 (36.1%) 20/62 (32.3%) 0.697
 Positive for respiratory syncytial virus 13/40 (32.5%) 35/70 (50.0%) 0.075
 Positive for rhinovirus 19/40 (47.5%) 20/70 (28.6%) 0.046
 Positive for influenza virus 8/40 (20.0%) 8/70 (11.4%) 0.220
 Positive for parainfluenza virus 5/40 (12.5%) 13/70 (18.6%) 0.408
 Positive for adenovirus 3/40 (7.5%) 5/70 (7.1%) 1.000
 Positive for bocavirus 4/40 (10.0%) 2/70 (2.9%) 0.188
 Positive for human metapneumovirus 2/40 (5.0%) 2/70 (2.9%) 0.621
 Positive for coronavirus 1/40 (2.5%) 1/70 (1.4%) 1.000
  1. Abbreviations: NPW nasopharyngeal washing, RT-PCR real-time polymerase chain reaction
  2. aWe compared the proportions of the selected variables between pneumococcal colonization and non-colonization using Chi-square or Fisher exact test (for categorical variables) or Wilcoxon rank-sum test (for continuous variables non-normally distributed)
  3. bOne culture positive to S. pneumoniae