Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of children with and without pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization

From: Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage among Bhutanese children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia: serotypes and viral co-infection

  S. pneumoniae colonization n = 76 (62.8%) No S. pneumoniae colonization n = 45 (37.2%) p-valuea
Demographic characteristics
Gender, female 38/76 (50.0%) 13/45 (28.9%) 0.023
Age in months (median, IQR) 10.8 (7.6–23.4) 9.7 (4.0–23.0) 0.169
Age groups 0.948
 Infants (<  12 months) 41/76 (54.0%) 24/45 (53.3%)
  ≥ 12 months 35/76 (46.0%) 21/45 (46.7%)
HIV infection 0/76 (0%) 0/45 (0%) NA
Vaccination status 0.157
 Fully vaccinated according to age 63/75 (84.0%) 33/45 (73.3%)
 Partially vaccinated according to age 12/75 (16.0%) 12/45 (26.7%)  
 Not vaccinated 0/75 (0%) 0/45 (0%)
At least one other child under 5 years of age in the household 32/76 (42.1%) 14/45 (31.1%) 0.229
6 people or more living in the household 30/76 (39.5%) 16/45 (36.4%) 0.736
Education 0.157
 Both parents are illiterate 10/75 (13.3%) 8/44 (18.2%)  
 Only one parent has primary education 17/75 (22.7%) 4/44 (9.1%)
 Both parents have primary education 28/75 (37.3%) 23/44 (52.3%)
 At least one parent has university education 20/75 (26.7%) 9/44 (20.4%)
Employment 1.000
 Both parents are unemployed 1/71 (1.4%) 1/43 (2.3%)  
 Only one parent is employed 46/71 (64.8%) 27/43 (62.8%)
 Both parents are employed 24/71 (33.8%) 15/43 (34.9%)
Season 0.677
 Summer 27/76 (35.5%) 15/45 (33.3%)  
 Fall 30/76 (39.5%) 16/45 (35.6%)
 Winter 5/76 (6.6%) 6/45 (13.3%)
 Spring 14/76 (18.4%) 8/45 (17.8%)
History and severity of the current episode
Antibiotics started prior to admission 10/75 (13.3%) 14/45 (31.1%) 0.018
Antibiotics prior to NPW collection < 0.001
 No 52/76 (68.4%) 13/45 (28.9%)
 Yes, for less than 24 h 13/76 (17.1%) 14/45 (31.1%)
 Yes, for more than 24 h 11/76 (14.5%) 18/45 (40.0%)
Days of fever prior admission (median, IQR) 3 (1–5) 2 (0–4) 0.363
WHO severe pneumonia on admission 55/76 (72.4%) 38/45 (84.4%) 0.256
Severe pneumonia during admission 60/76 (79.0%) 39/45 (86.7%) 0.287
Radiological findings
 CXR findings    0.051
 Pneumonia endpoint 20/67 (29.9%) 10/38 (26.3%)
 Other infiltrates 7/67 (10.4%) 11/38 (29.0%)
 Normal 40/67 (59.7%) 17/38 (44.7%)
Laboratory findings  
 CRP > 4 mg/dL 10/73 (13.7%) 8/42 (19.1%) 0.447
 ESR ≥ 50 mm 13/69 (18.8%) 4/39 (10.3%) 0.239
 Leucocytosis 34/76 (44.7%) 15/44 (34.1%) 0.253
 Neutrophilia 28/76 (36.8%) 9/44 (20.5%) 0.061
Evolution and outcome  
Oxygen therapy during hospitalization 52/76 (68.4%) 34/45 (75.6%) 0.403
Duration of hospitalization 0.285
  < 24 h 3/76 (3.9%) 2/45 (4.4%)
  ≥ 24 to < 72 h 31/76 (40.8%) 12/45 (26.7%)
  ≥ 72 h to < 7 days 29/76 (38.2%) 25/45 (55.6%)
  ≥ 7 days 13/76 (17.1%) 6/45 (13.3%)
Fatal outcome 1/76 (1.3%) 1/45 (2.2%) 1.000
Poor prognosis, simple definition (admission to PICU and/or fatal outcome) 10/76 (13.2%) 7/45 (15.6%) 0.714
Extended poor prognosis definition (admission to PICU, admission to HDU, fatal outcome, and/or hospitalization ≥7 days) 23/76 (30.3%) 15/45 (33.3%) 0.725
  1. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, CXR chest radiography, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HDU high dependency unit, IQR interquartile range, NA not applicable, PICU paediatric intensive care unit
  2. aWe examined the association between pneumococcal carriage status and the selected variables using Chi-square or Fisher exact test (for categorical variables) or Wilcoxon rank-sum test (for continuous variables non-normally distributed)