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Table 2 Mortality predictors at the onset of Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection

From: A risk score based on pediatric sequential organ failure assessment predicts 90-day mortality in children with Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection

Variable Total
(N = 146)
Survivors
(n = 113)
Non-survivors
(n = 33)
P value
Invasive procedures prior to the onset of infection
 Surgery, n (%) 66 (45.2) 52 (46.0) 14 (42.4) 0.72
 Urinary catheterization, n (%) 72 (49.3) 57 (50.4) 15 (45.5) 0.61
 Gastrointestinal decompression, n (%) 85 (58.2) 66 (58.4) 19 (57.6) 0.93
 Sputum suction, n (%) 67 (45.9) 52 (46.0) 15 (45.5) 0.95
 Invasive ventilation, n (%) 54 (37.0) 40 (35.4) 14 (42.4) 0.46
Source of bloodstream infection
 Primary bacteremia, n (%) 33 (22.6) 30 (26.5) 3 (9.1) 0.04
 Intra-abdominal infection, n (%) 30 (20.5) 14 (12.4) 16 (48.5) < 0.01
 Pneumonia, n (%) 73 (50.0) 60 (53.1) 13 (39.4) 0.17
 Catheter-related infection, n (%) 10 (6.8) 9 (8.0) 1 (3.0) 0.46
Microbiological characteristics
 Healthcare-associated infection, n (%) 124 (84.9) 96 (85.0) 28 (84.8) 0.83
 Carbapenem-resistance isolate, n (%) 71 (48.6) 50 (44.2) 21 (63.6) 0.05
 Polymicrobial bloodstream infection, n (%) 34 (23.3) 26 (23.0) 8 (24.2) 0.88
Laboratory predictorsa
 Leukocyte counts, median (IQR), 109/L 9.9 (5.3, 18.9) 9.3 (6.7, 15.7) 13.1 (5.0, 24.5) 0.44
 Hemoglobin, median (IQR), g/L 105 (89, 121) 105 (93, 122) 97 (86, 118) 0.84
 Platelet counts, median (IQR), 109/L 190 (102, 282) 213 (115, 314) 103 (17, 151) < 0.01
 Procalcitonin, median (IQR), ng/mL 1.4 (0.1, 17.0) 0.8 (0, 13.8) 7.5 (0.32, 69.6) 0.06
 C-reactive protein, median (IQR), mg/L 30 (8, 77) 19 (8, 54) 88 (39, 143) < 0.01
 Albumin, median (IQR), g/L 28.0 (27.6, 35.4) 32.4 (28.8, 35.8) 26.8 (20.1, 34.0) < 0.01
 Total bilirubin, median (IQR), mg/dL 1.6 (0.5, 3.9) 1.1 (0.4, 3.3) 2.2 (1.3, 5.8) 0.06
 Creatinine, median (IQR), μmol/L 26 (21, 43) 25 (20, 37) 40 (22, 64) 0.01
 Lactate, median (IQR), mmol/L 1.6 (0.8, 4.1) 1.4 (0.8, 2.4) 2.4 (1.4, 5.3) < 0.01
Organ failure
 SOFA score, median (IQR) 5 (3, 7) 4 (2, 6) 7 (6, 10) < 0.01
 Altered mental status, n (%) 22 (15.1) 10 (8.9) 12 (36.4) < 0.01
 Respiratory failure, n (%) 92 (63.0) 68 (60.2) 24 (72.7) 0.19
 Shock/hypotension, n (%) 43 (29.5) 28 (24.8) 15 (45.5) 0.02
 Hepatic failure, n (%) 77 (52.7) 53 (46.9) 24 (72.7) < 0.01
 Renal failure, n (%) 33 (22.6) 22 (19.5) 11 (33.3) 0.09
 Coagulation disorder, n (%) 58 (39.7) 35 (31.0) 23 (69.7) < 0.01
Number of organ failure(s)     < 0.01
 0, n (%) 17 (11.6) 15 (13.3) 2 (6.1)  
 1, n (%) 36 (24.7) 34 (43.4) 2 (6.1)  
 2, n (%) 35 (24.0) 30 (26.5) 5 (15.2)  
 3, n (%) 28 (19.2) 17 (15.0) 11 (33.3)  
 ≥ 4, n (%) 30 (20.5) 17 (15.0) 13 (39.3)  
  1. IQR interquartile range, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment
  2. aLaboratory examinations were performed within 24 h after the collection of blood culture samples