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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population

From: No evidence of a synergistic effect of HIV infection and diabetes mellitus type 2 on fat distribution, plasma adiponectin or inflammatory markers

  HIV + DM2+ HIV + DM2- Controls with DM2 Healthy controls P
n 18 18 19 25  
Age, median (range) 58 (46–65) 57 (38–67) 57 (49–66) 58 (42–66) 0.801
Gender (%male) 89 94 68 88 0.125
BMI 27 (25–29) 25 (22–27) 29 (27–30) 25 (24–26) 0.003
Metabolic factors
 Fasting –PG 8.6 (7.2–10.0) 5.2 (5.0–5.4)* 8.5 (7.5–9.6) 5.3 (5.1–5.5)* < 0.001
 Hba1c (mmol/mol) 49 (44–55) 35 (33–37)* 55 (49–60) 37 (36–38)* < 0.001
 Cholesterol 4.5 (4.1–4.9) 5.6 (5.0–6.1)* 4.2 (3.8–4.7) 5.5 (5.1–5.9)* < 0.001
 HDL 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 1.5 (1.3–1.7)* 0.010
 LDL 2.3 (1.9–2.7) 3.4 (2.8–4.0)* 2.4 (1.9–2.8) 3.5 (3.2–3.8)* < 0.001
 Triglyceride 2.7 (1.8–3.7) 2.0 (1.2–2.8) 2.0 (1.5–2.5) 1.4 (1.0–2.0)* 0.006
 HOMA-IR 3.3 (2.6–3.9) 2.0 (1.6–2.3)* 3.3 (2.5–4.1) 1.7 (1.4–2.0)* < 0.001
 Fasting c-peptide, median (range) 0.96 (0.58–1.44) 1.09 (0.66–2.18)* 1.05(0.39–2.32) 0.75 (0.39–1.42)* < 0.001
Immunological factors
 Time since HIV diagnosis (months) 168 (116–219) 205 (147–263) 0.413
 CD4 count 689 (537–842) 656 (506–807) 1197 (986–1408)* 822 (711–932) < 0.001
 CD8 count 885 (748–1023) 1003 (737–1270) 485 (436–735)* 446 (364–528)* < 0.001
 Nadir CD4 188 (114–262) 219 (118–320) 0.608
 HIV RNA (copies/mL) 28 (15–42) 29 (16–43) 0.845
Medication (current)
 HIV treatment duration (months) 130 (97–164) 125 (87–164) 0.835
 Lipid lowering drug (%) 72 6 58 16 < 0.001
 Insulin (%) 24 6 0.129
 Metformin (%) 67 68 0.909
 GLP-1 (%) 6 26 0.087
 DPP-4 (%) 11 11 0.954
 Sulphonylureas (%) 28 21 0.634
 Special diet (%) 6 21 0.168
  1. Differences between groups were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by t-test for comparison between HIV + DM2+ and the 3 control groups when ANOVA test was < 0.05. *p ≤ 0.05 compared to HIV + DM2+. For categorical data Pearson chi-square test was used. Results are given as mean (95% CI) if not otherwise stated. Participants could receive more than one type of drug for diabetes treatment and can be included in more than one treatment category except in the diet group. Participants were only registered as diet treated if this was the only treatment they received for their type 2 diabetes. Abbreviations: HIV + DM2+ Persons living with HIV with diabetes mellitus type 2, HIV + DM2- Persons living with HIV without diabetes mellitus type 2, BMI Body mass index, Fasting-PG Fasting plasma glucose, Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, HDL High density lipoprotein, LDL Low density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance