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Table 2 Types of antibiotic agents and antibiotic prescribing rates in four types of pediatric wards

From: Analysis of antibiotic treatment of children in a Shanghai tertiary hospital based on point prevalence surveys

Antibiotic classes Number of Participants
[n(%)]
(n = 3975)
Antibiotic agents Number of Participants
[n (%)] (n = 3975)
Prophylaxis a
[n (%)] (n = 648)
Therapy a
[n (%)] (n = 1947)
General pediatric medical wards
(n = 1514)
Pediatric surgical wards
(n = 1430)
PICU
(n = 200)
Neonatal wards
(n = 831)
Cephalosporins 1743 (43.8) cefuroxime 594 (14.9) 297 (45.8) 301 (15.5) 257 (17.0) 306 (21.4) 30 (15.0) 1 (0.1)
   ceftriaxone 387 (9.7) 81 (12.5) 315 (16.2) 255 (16.8) 111 (7.8) 9 (4.5) 12 (1.4)
   cefotaxime 358 (9.0) 24 (3.7) 344 (17.7) 32 (2.1) 8 (0.6) 8 (4.0) 310 (37.3)
   cefoperazone/sulbactam 236 (5.9) 54 (8.3) 189 (9.7) 73 (4.8) 105 (7.3) 46 (23.0) 12 (1.4)
   cefonicid 49 (1.2) 37 (5.7) 13 (0.7) 11 (0.7) 37 (2.6) 1 (0.5) 0
   cefotiam 33 (0.8) 21 (3.2) 12 (0.6) 11 (0.7) 22 (1.5) 0 0
   ceftazidime 29 (0.7) 7 (1.1) 22 (1.1) 3 (0.2) 14 (1.0) 1 (0.5) 11 (1.3)
   cefaclor 26 (0.7) 18 (2.8) 8 (0.4) 5 (0.3) 19 (1.3) 0 2 (0.2)
   cefixime 22 (0.6) 8 (1.2) 16 (0.8) 6 (0.4) 5 (0.3) 3 (1.5) 8 (1.0)
   cefepime 6 (0.2) 0 6 (0.3) 5 (0.3) 1 (0.1) 0 0
   cefdinir 3 (0.1) 0 3 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 0 0 0
Penicillins 526 (13.2) ampicillin/sulbactam 239 (6.0) 33 (5.1) 212 (10.9) 27 (1.8) 15 (1.0) 29 (14.5) 168 (20.2)
   amoxycillin/clavulanic acid 113 (2.8) 0 113 (5.8) 104 (6.9) 0 4 (2.0) 5 (0.6)
   ticarcillin/clavulanic acid 99 (2.5) 15 (2.3) 85 (4.4) 1 (0.1) 35 (2.4) 0 63 (7.6)
   penicillin 59 (1.5) 3 (0.5) 56 (2.9) 36 (2.4) 2 (0.1) 0 21 (2.5)
   amoxicillin/sulbactam 5 (0.1) 0 5 (0.3) 3 (0.2) 0 0 2 (0.2)
   mezlocillin 5 (0.1) 0 5 (0.3) 0 0 0 5 (0.6)
   piperacillin 4 (0.1) 1 (0.2) 4 (0.2) 0 3 (0.3) 0 1 (0.1)
   oxacillin 1 (0.0) 0 1 (0.05) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0
   cloxacillin 1 (0.0) 0 1 (0.05) 0 0 0 1 (0.1)
Carbapenems 347 (8.7) meropenem 320 (8.1) 32 (4.9) 298 (15.3) 89 (5.9) 69 (4.8) 47 (23.5) 115 (13.8)
   imipenem/cilastatin 27 (0.7) 1 (0.2) 27 (1.4) 17 (1.1) 3 (0.2) 6 (3.0) 1 (0.1)
Nitroimidazoles 281 (7.1) ornidazole 159 (4.0) 90 (13.9) 76 (3.9) 4 (0.3) 154 (10.8) 1 (0.5) 0
   metronidazole 121 (3.0) 58 (9.0) 66 (3.4) 6 (0.4) 89 (6.2) 2 (1.0) 24 (2.9)
   tinidazole 1 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0
Macrolides 257 (6.5) azithromycin 220 (5.5) 0 220 (11.3) 195 (12.9) 3 (0.2) 22 (11.0) 0
   erythromycin cyclic 22 (0.6) 0 22 (1.1) 9 (0.6) 0 9 (4.5) 4 (0.5)
   acetyl midecamycin 11 (0.3) 0 11 (0.6) 8 (0.5) 1 (0.1) 2 (1.0) 0
   clarithromycin 2 (0.1) 0 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 0 0 0
   roxithromycin 1 (0.0) 0 1 (0.05) 0 0 0 1 (0.1)
   acetylspiramycin 1 (0.0) 0 1 (0.05) 0 0 0 1 (0.1)
Glycopeptides 124 (3.1) vancomycin 115 (2.9) 14 (2.2) 104 (5.3) 45 (3.0) 32 (2.2) 15 (7.5) 23 (2.8)
   demethyl vancomycin 8 (0.2) 0 8 (0.4) 2 (0.1) 4 (0.3) 0 2 (0.2)
   teicoplanin 1 (0.0) 0 1 (0.05) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0
Lincosamides 30 (0.8) clindamycin 30 (0.8) 15 (2.3) 15 (0.8) 1 (0.1) 29 (2.0) 0 0
Cephalomycins 26 (0.7) cefoxitin 19 (0.5) 15 (2.3) 4 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 18 (1.3) 0 0
   cefotetan 6 (0.2) 1 (0.2) 0 6 (0.4) 0 0 0
   cefmetazole 1 (0.0) 0 6 (0.3) 1 (0.1) 0 0 0
Sulfonamides 23 (0.6) compound sulfamethoxazole 23 (0.6) 6 (0.9) 19 (1.0) 22 (1.5) 0 1 (0.5) 0
Linezolid 16 (0.4) linezolid 16 (0.4) 2 (0.3) 15 (0.8) 11 (0.7) 3 (0.2) 2 (1.0) 0
Aminoglycosides 12 (0.3) isepamicin 8 (0.2) 1 (0.2) 8 (0.4) 3 (0.2) 0 5 (2.5) 0
   streptomycin 2 (0.1) 0 2 (0.1) 0 2 (0.1) 0 0
   amikacin 2 (0.1) 0 2 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.5) 1 (0.1)
Fosfomycin 9 (0.2) fosfomycin 9 (0.2) 1 (0.2) 9 (0.5) 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 7 (3.5) 0
Furans 5 (0.1) nitrofurantoin 5 (0.1) 0 5 (0.3) 0 2 (0.1) 3 (1.5) 0
Tetracyclines 4 (0.1) minocycline 4 (0.1) 1 (0.2) 4 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 0 1 (0.5) 0
Glycylcyclines 2 (0.1) tigecycline 2 (0.1) 1 (0.2) 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 0 1 (0.5) 0
Quinolones 2 (0.1) norfloxacin 1 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0
   ciprofloxacin 1 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 1 (0.05) 0 0 1 (0.5) 0
Aztreonam 1 (0.0) aztreonam 1 (0.0) 0 1 (0.05) 0 0 0 1 (0.1)
Antifungals 92 (2.3) fluconazole 43 (1.1) 3 (0.5) 41 (2.1) 35 (2.3) 0 3 (1.5) 5 (0.6)
   voriconazole 23 (0.6) 4 (0.6) 23 (1.18) 13 (0.9) 1 (0.1) 6 (3.0) 3 (0.4)
   itraconazole 21 (0.5) 4 (0.6) 19 (1.0) 13 (0.9) 2 (0.1) 6 (3.0) 0
   amphotericin B liposome 5 (0.1) 1 (0.2) 5 (0.3) 3 (0.2) 0 1 (0.5) 1 (0.1)
  1. Note:a including 54 cases of “Prophylaxis + Therapy”