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Table 1 Prevalence of HCV and HBV among the incarcerated PWID

From: Prevalence of and risk factors for HBV and HCV among incarcerated people who inject drugs in Iran: A cross sectional study

Variables Total HCV (N = 589) HBV (N = 37)
  N (%)a (95% CI) P-value N (%)a (95% CI) P-value
Gender
 Female 12 3 (29.42) (7.41–68.46) 0.527 1 (4.29) (0.36–35.71) 0.598
 Male 1375 586 (40.70) (34.44–47.27)   36 (2.43) (1.63–3.60)  
Age (Year)
 < 30 216 55 (24.25) (14.14–38.37) 0.004 6 (3.90) (1.72–8.61) 0.240
 ≥ 30 1168 532 (43.64) (37.45–50.04)   31 (2.18) (1.31–3.61)  
 Missing 3     
Marital Status
 Single 587 274 (45.79) (37.07–54.77) 0.069 20 (3.12) (2.05–4.72) 0.459
 Divorced/widowed 181 79 (40.08) (27.97–53.55)   4 (1.99) (0.59–6.51)  
 Married 616 235 (36.48) (30.42–43.01)   13 (2.02) (0.95–4.27)  
 Missing 3     
Level of educational
 Illiterate /primary 513 222 (41.26) (34.40–48.47) 0.002 16 (2.66) (1.31–5.35) 0.893
 Junior high school / Diploma 819 354 (41.28) (35.15–47.68)   19 (2.22) (1.44–3.42)  
 University education 53 11 (18.07) (8.85–33.37)   2 (4.22) (0.79–19.69)  
 Missing 2     
History of imprisonment
 No 227 85 (37.69) (30.18–45.84) 0.393 5 (2.11) (0.54–7.84) 0.775
 Yes 1153 502 (41.23) (34.15–48.69)   32 (2.55) (1.68–3.85)  
 Missing 7     
Number of incarcerations
 1–2 453 161 (32.51) (24.92–41.14) < 0.001 12 (2.41) (1.08–5.30) 0.264
 3–4 341 159 (44.78) (36.46–53.40)   14 (3.90) (2.35–6.41)  
 ≥ 5 355 179 (48.24) (39.52–57.06)   6 (1.50) (0.49–4.53)  
 Missing 4     
Prison term in the lifetime
 ≤ 5 607 238 (36.51) (27.98–45.98) < 0.001 16 (2.08) (1.13–3.80) 0.331
 > 5 241 128 (52.77) (46.10–59.34)   8 (3.75) (1.42–9.50)  
 Missing 305     
History of tattooing in the lifetime
 No 412 146 (35.70) (29.21–42.77) 0.013 11 (2.22) (1.26–3.87) 0.744
 Yes 972 442 (42.71) (35.88–49.83)   25 (2.49) (1.48–4.18)  
 Missing 3     
History of tattooing in prison
 No 532 241 (39.87) (32.36–47.89) 0.365 14 (2.63) (1.48–4.62) 0.827
 Yes 433 196 (45.08) (35.41–55.14)   11 (2.40) (1.10–5.18)  
 Missing 7     
History of piercing in the lifetime
 No 681 259 (36.16) (29.48–43.42) 0.005 12 (1.56) (0.67–3.55) 0.635
 Yes 700 329 (45.17) (38.36–52.18)   25 (3.39) (2.40–4.78)  
 Missing 6     
History of piercing in prison
 No 582 274 (44.45) (37.80–51.31) 0.846 22 (3.70) (2.44–5.58) 0.262
 Yes 109 50 (45.70) (33.32–58.64)   2 (1.60) (0.43–5.83)  
 Missing 9     
History of extramarital sex in the lifetime
 No 332 123 (32.31) (23.97–41.94) 0.070 7 (1.81) (0.60–5.36) 0.440
 Yes 944 414 (43.10) (34.95–51.64)   26 (2.76) (1.81–4.18)  
 Missing 111     
Number of heterosexual/ homosexual partners in the lifetime
 1 112 43 (34.17) (25.61–43.89) 0.216 4 (3.22) (1.05–9.47) 0.216
 2–3 448 216 (45.98) (34.45–57.96)   14 (2.96) (1.71–5.08)  
 > 3 295 114 (37.06) (25.78–49.95)   3 (0.95) (0.41–2.19)  
 Missing 89     
Condom use in extramarital sex
 Never 204 85 (39.04) (27.25–52.28) 0.325 5 (1.88) (0.74–4.71) 0.277
 Sometime 519 257 (42.81) (34.17–51.92)   19 (3.24) (1.98–5.26)  
 Always 139 68 (48.39) (37.85–59.07)   2 (1.39) (0.34–5.50)  
 Missing 10     
History of STD b in the last year
 No 1275 538 (40.09) (34.20–46.28) 0.193 34 (2.47) (1.57–3.84) 0.983
 Yes 110 50 (47.97) (33.94–62.32)   3 (2.43) (0.78–7.37)  
 Missing 2     
  1. a weighted prevalence, b Sexually transmitted diseases