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Table 2 The source of candidemia, prior antibiotic and antifungal therapy of the mono-CA-BSI compared with the Mixed-CA/B-BSIs

From: Clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of mixed Candida albicans/bacterial bloodstream infections

Variable Total(n = 117) Mono-CA-BSI(n = 93) Mixed-CA/B-BSIs(n = 24) P value
Source of candidaemia [n (%)]
  Definitive CVC-related 34 (29.1%) 27 (29.0%) 7 (29.2%) 0.990
 Intra-abdominal 24 (20.5%) 18 (19.4%) 6 (25.0%) 0.744
  Primary 22 (18.8%) 15 (16.1%) 7 (29.2%) 0.244
  Lower respiratory tract 12 (10.3%) 11 (11.8%) 1 (4.2%) 0.468
 Urinary tract infection 7 (6.0%) 6 (6.5%) 1 (4.2%) > 0.999
 Gastrointestinal tract 6 (5.1%) 6 (6.5%) 0 (0.0%) 0.344
 Skin and Soft tissue 5 (4.3%) 4 (4.3%) 1 (4.2%) > 0.999
 Meningitis 3 (2.6%) 2 (2.2%) 1 (4.2%) 0.501
 Endocardium 2 (1.7%) 2 (2.2%) 0 (0.0%) > 0.999
 Osteoarthritis 1 (0.9%) 1 (1.1%) 0 (0.0%) > 0.999
Source control [n (%)]
 Removal of contaminated lines a 40 (34.2%) 27 (29.0%) 13 (54.2%) 0.021
 Draining of fungal collection 19 (16.2%) 14 (15.1%) 5 (20.8%) 0.708
Days of prior antibiotic exposure (IQR) 11.0 (3.0,22.0) 8.0 (1.0,20.5) 17.0 (10.3,28.8) 0.007
Prior antibiotic exposure b [n (%)] 93 (79.5%) 69 (74.2%) 24 (100.0%) 0.012
 Cephalosporins 33 (28.2%) 25 (26.9%) 8 (33.3%) 0.531
 Carbapenems 49 (41.9%) 41 (44.1%) 8 (33.3%) 0.341
 Penicillins 25 (21.4%) 19 (20.4%) 6 (25.0%) 0.626
 Quinolones 4 (3.4%) 4 (4.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0.580
Initial antifungal agent [n (%)]
 Fluconazole 40 (34.2%) 32 (34.4%) 8 (33.3%) 0.921
 Echinocandin 46 (39.3%) 36 (38.7%) 10 (41.7%) 0.791
 Voriconazole 11 (9.4%) 9 (9.7%) 2 (8.3%) > 0.999
Prior antifungal exposure [n (%)] 10 (8.5%) 6 (6.4%) 4 (16.7%) 0.235
Appropriate Antifungal therapy c [n (%)] 43 (36.8%) 35 (37.6%) 8 (33.3%) 0.697
Delay in initiation of empiric antifungal treatment d [n (%)] 100 (85.5%) 82 (88.2%) 18 (75.0%) 0.103
  1. Abbreviations: CVC central venous catheter, PICC Peripherally inserted central catheters, CRBSI catheter-related bloodstream infection;
  2. aCentral venous catheter removed within 48 h after the first positive sample
  3. bAll patients receiving systemic drug therapy for ≥3 days within 2 weeks prior to candidaemia onset
  4. cAntifungal therapy was defined as appropriate if the isolated Candida spp. was sensitive to the chosen antifungal agent, and the antifungal agent was used with adequate dosages (like Fluconazole: loading dose of 800 mg [12 mg/kg], then 400 mg [6 mg/kg] daily; Caspofungin: loading dose of 70 mg, then 50 mg daily)
  5. dThe delay of empiric antifungal treatment was considered as initial use more than 12 h after the report of first positive blood sample