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Table 1 Antibiotic susceptibility data from 409 clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Hanoi, Vietnam in 2017–2019. Mean zone diameters of inhibition and interpretive categories are presented for each antibiotic

From: Trends in antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Hanoi, Vietnam, 2017–2019

Antibiotics Mean Zone of Inhibition Diameter, mm (SD)  
  2017
(n = 112)
2018
(n = 135)
2019
(n = 162)
p value*
Penicillin 22.0 (11.9) 20.9 (10.2) 20.3 (10.5) 0.16
Tetracycline 22.8 (9.6) 21.7 (9.0) 24.6 (8.2) <  0.01
Ciprofloxacina 10 (6–10) 6 (6–16) 11 (6–17) 0.17
Spectinomycin 30.3 (3.3) 26.5 (3.3) 27.1 (3.7) <  0.01
Azithromycin 34.6 (4.4) 31.6 (3.8) 32.7 (4.0) <  0.01
Ceftriaxone 43.0 (4.1) 40.5 (3.6) 41.1 (3.8) <  0.01
Cefixime 37.5 (5.0) 35.5 (4.3) 36.3 (4.1) <  0.01
  Interpretive Categories,b n (%)  
2017 2018 2019 p value
Penicillin (n = 408)     0.01
 Susceptible 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
 Intermediate 59 (52.7%) 50 (37.0%) 56 (34.6%)  
 Resistant 53 (47.3%) 85 (63.0%) 106 (65.4%)  
Tetracycline (n = 409)     0.02
 Susceptible 0 (0%) 1 (0.7%) 2 (1.2%)  
 Intermediate 21 (18.8%) 12 (8.9%) 36 (22.2%)  
 Resistant 91 (81.3%) 122 (90.4%) 124 (76.5%)  
Ciprofloxacin (n = 408)     0.24
 Susceptible 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (1.2%)  
 Intermediate 0 (0%) 1 (0.7%) 3 (1.9%)  
 Resistant 111 (100%) 134 (99.3%) 157 (96.9%)  
Spectinomycin (n = 409)    
 Susceptible 112 (100%) 135 (100%) 162 (100%)  
 Intermediate 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
 Resistant 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Azithromycin (n = 407)     < 0.01
 Non-resistant 94 (84.7%) 72 (53.3%) 119 (73.9%)  
 Resistant 17 (15.3%) 63 (46.7%) 42 (26.1%)  
Cefixime (n = 406)     0.31
 Susceptible 110 (98.2%) 125 (94.7%) 158 (97.5%)  
 Non-susceptible 2 (1.8%) 7 (5.7%) 4 (2.5%)  
Ceftriaxone (n = 408)     0.78
 Susceptible 112 (100%) 133 (99.3%) 160 (98.8%)  
 Non-susceptible 0 (0%) 1 (0.7%) 2 (1.2%)  
  1. *p value from Kruskal-Wallis test for means and Chi-square or Fisher’s Exact tests for susceptibility categories
  2. aMedian (Interquartile range)
  3. b Interpretive categories (except for azithromycin) were defined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol [14]. For azithromycin, interpretive criteria were defined according to the Centers for Disease Control Neisseria Reference Laboratory [15]