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Table 4 Relationship between low birth weight, premature, and small for gestational age births and placental malaria, 2010–2014, Dar es Salaam, Tanzaniaa,b

From: Factors associated with sub-microscopic placental malaria and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-negative women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cohort study

Exposure of interest Proportion distribution of exposure n (%) Univariable model Multivariable model
Outcome No outcome RR [95% CI] P-value RR [95% CI] P-value
Low birth weight outcomec
 Placental malaria    n = 922   n = 922  
  Negative 72 (8.7) 756 (91.3) Ref   Ref  
  DNA PCR positive 7 (5.4) 123 (94.6) 0.46 [0.25, 0.85] 0.01 0.58 [0.23, 1.45]d 0.25
  Histopathology positive 7 (7.8) 83 (92.2) 0.86 [0.50, 1.46] 0.57 0.90 [0.43, 1.90]d 0.79
Premature births outcomee
 Placental malaria    n = 917   n = 917  
  Negative 175 (21.2) 651 (78.8) Ref   Ref  
  DNA PCR positive 32 (24.8) 97 (75.2) 1.10 [0.87, 1.40] 0.42 1.14 [0.90, 1.45] 0.27
  Histopathology positive 24 (26.7) 66 (73.3) 1.18 [0.90, 1.53] 0.23 1.16 [0.89, 1.52] 0.26
Small for gestational age outcomee
 Placental malaria    n = 892   n = 892  
  Negative 144 (18.0) 656 (82.0) Ref   Ref  
  DNA PCR positive 16 (12.4) 113 (87.6) 0.60 [0.42, 0.86] 0.01 0.61 [0.43, 0.88] 0.01
  Histopathology positive 20 (22.5) 69 (77.5) 1.25 [0.94, 1.65] 0.13 1.30 [0.98, 1.72] 0.07
  1. RR is a relative risk
  2. CI is the confidence interval
  3. The negative placental test was referring to negative to both PCR and histopathology tests
  4. a All multivariable models were adjusted for employment, years of education, wealth quartiles, supplements regimen, gravidity, use of combination malaria preventions, twin pregnant status, BMI, and anemia status at baseline
  5. b Weighted models were used to account for missing placenta samples for placental malaria diagnosis
  6. c Low birth weight is defined as live born with a birth weight below 2.5 kg
  7. d Multivariate Poisson distribution was applied to estimate relative risk because of the log-binomial model did not converge with desired covariates
  8. e Premature births were defined as live born delivered before 37 weeks of gestation
  9. e Small for gestational age birth was defined as live born infants with a birth weight below 10th percentile for sex and gestational age, based on INTERGROWTH-21st standards