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Table 3 Factors associated with placental malaria among women with sample for both diagnosis, 2010–2014, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (n = 941)a, b

From: Factors associated with sub-microscopic placental malaria and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-negative women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cohort study

Characteristics DNA PCR positive Histopathology positive
OR [95% CI] P-value OR [95% CI] P-value
Maternal age in years
  ≤ 24 Ref   Ref  
  ≥ 25 1.20 [0.88, 1.64] 0.24 1.15 [0.79, 1.68] 0.46
Gestational age in weeksc 0.97 [0.92, 1.02] 0.23 1.08 [1.00, 1.15] 0.04
Employment
 Unemployed Ref   Ref  
 Employedd 0.72 [0.52, 1.00] 0.05 0.69 [0.47, 1.00] 0.05
 Other 1.08 [0.75, 1.57] 0.67 0.49 [0.28, 0.86] 0.01
Years of education
 0–7 2.21 [0.99, 4.97] 0.05 5.87 [1.25, 27.51] 0.02
 8–11 1.85 [0.80, 4.27] 0.15 6.48 [1.37, 30.68] 0.02
  ≥ 12 Ref   Ref  
Wealth index
 1 (Lowest) Ref   Ref  
 2 0.78 [0.52, 1.18] 0.24 1.58 [1.00, 2.50] 0.05
 3 1.10 [0.77, 1.57] 0.62 0.91 [0.57 1.46] 0.69
 4 (Highest) 1.22 [0.82, 1.82] 0.33 1.53 [0.94, 2.48] 0.09
Number of previous pregnancies
 First 0.94 [0.71, 1.25] 0.69 1.11 [0.79, 1.55] 0.56
 Second Ref   Ref  
Uses fumigation or mosquito coils or net at night
 No 1.75 [1.05, 2.92] 0.03 1.45 [0.76, 2.74] 0.26
 Yes Ref   Ref  
Body mass index (kg/m2)
Underweight 0.33 [0.17, 0.62] 0.001 0.78 [0.44, 1.36] 0.38
 Normal Ref   Ref  
 Overweight or obese 1.21 [0.90, 1.63] 0.21 1.48 [1.03, 2.11] 0.03
Anemia status
 Not anemic (Hb ≥ 11.0 g/dL) Ref   Ref  
 Anemic (Hb < 11.0 g/dL) 1.59 [1.20, 2.11] 0.001 1.70 [1.22, 2.38] 0.002
  1. OR is an odds ratio
  2. CI is the confidence interval
  3. a The model was adjusted for the trial supplement regimen received
  4. b The weighted analysis was used to account for missing placenta samples for placental malaria diagnosis. Multinomial distribution with the nominal outcome, each PCR positive and histopathology positive were compared to negative for both tests
  5. c Gestational age at enrollment based on last menstrual period
  6. d Employed includes skilled, unskilled, and informal employment