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Table 2 Distribution of baseline characteristics of pregnant women by placental malaria outcome, 2010–2014, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

From: Factors associated with sub-microscopic placental malaria and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-negative women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cohort study

Characteristics Placental test results Total
Negativea DNA PCR Positive Histopathology positive
Overall, n (%) 886 (79.5) 136 (12.2) 93 (8.3) 1115 (100)
Maternal age in years, median (IQR) 22 (20–25) 22 (20–26) 22 (20–25) 22 (20–25)
Maternal age in years, n (%)
  ≤ 24 624 (70.6) 91 (67.9) 65 (69.9) 780 (70.2)
 25–34 249 (28.2) 40 (29.9) 27 (29.0) 316 (28.4)
  ≥ 35 11 (1.2) 3 (2.2) 1 (1.1) 15 (1.4)
Gestational age in weeksb, median (IQR) 10.6 (8.4–12.1) 10.1 (8.0–12.4) 11.3 (8.9–12.6) 10.4 (8.3–12.3)
Employment, n (%)
 Employedc 283 (32.3) 32 (23.7) 25 (27.2) 340 (30.8)
 Unemployed 451 (51.4) 79 (58.5) 60 (65.2) 590 (53.4)
 Other 143 (16.3) 24 (17.8) 7 (7.6) 174 (15.8)
Marital status, n (%)
 Living singled 92 (10.5) 11 (8.1) 9 (9.7) 112 (10.1)
 Married or cohabitating 787 (89.5) 124 (91.9) 84 (90.3) 995 (89.9)
Years of education, n (%)
 0–7 630 (71.1) 106 (77.9) 71 (76.3) 807 (72.4)
 8–11 198 (22.4) 25 (18.4) 21 (22.6) 244 (21.9)
  ≥ 12 58 (6.5) 5 (3.7) 1 (1.1) 64 (5.7)
Wealth quartile, n (%)
 1 (Lowest) 227 (27.6) 33 (25.8) 19 (21.8) 279 (26.9)
 2 194 (23.5) 22 (17.2) 24 (27.6) 240 (23.1)
 3 252 (30.6) 43 (33.6) 23 (26.4) 318 (30.6)
 4 (Highest) 151 (18.3) 30 (23.4) 21 (24.1) 202 (19.4)
Number of previous pregnancies, n (%)
 First 430 (48.6) 63 (46.3) 44 (47.3) 537 (48.2)
 Second 454 (51.4) 73 (53.7) 49 (52.7) 576 (51.8)
Twin pregnancy, n (%)
 Not twin 864 (97.5) 136 (100) 90 (96.8) 1090 (97.8)
 Twin 22 (2.5) 0 3 (3.2) 25 (2.2)
Uses fumigation or mosquito coils or net at night, n (%)
 No 55 (6.3) 13 (9.8) 7 (7.6) 75 (6.8)
 Yes 824 (93.7) 120 (90.2) 85 (92.4) 1029 (93.2)
Mid-upper arm circumference in cm, median (IQR) 26.0 (24.0–28.0) 26.0 (24.5–28.7) 27.0 (24.3–28.8) 26.0 (24.0–28.0)
Body mass index (kg/m2), median (IQR) 22.5 (20.1–25.9) 23.5 (20.9–25.8) 23.4 (20.9–26.7) 22.8 (20.3–25.9)
Body mass index (kg/m2), n (%)
 Underweight 106 (12.1) 5 (3.7) 7 (7.5) 118 (10.6)
 Normal 515 (58.5) 84 (61.8) 55 (59.1) 654 (59.0)
 Overweight or obese 259 (29.4) 47 (34.5) 31 (33.3) 337 (30.4)
Hemoglobin in g/dL, median (IQR) 11.7 (10.8–12.4) 11.4 (10.7–12.2) 11.5 (10.4–12.5) 11.6 (10.8–12.4)
Anemia status, n (%)
 Not anemic (Hb ≥ 11.0 g/dL) 612 (72.0) 88 (66.7) 58 (63.7) 758 (70.6)
 Anemic (Hb < 11.0 g/dL) 238 (28.0) 44 (33.3) 33 (36.3) 315 (29.4)
Peripheral malaria, n (%)
 Negative 832 (98.5) 131 (100) 79 (90.8) 1042 (98.0)
 Positive 13 (1.5) 0 8 (9.2) 21 (2.0)
  1. a Placental malaria test results negative for both Histopathology and PCR tests
  2. b Gestational age at enrollment based on the date of the last menstrual period
  3. c Employed includes skilled, unskilled, and informal employment
  4. d Living single includes never married, divorced, separated, and widow
  5. Note: Percentage may be slightly below or above 100% because of rounding