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Table 1 The distribution of baseline characteristics among pregnant women with and without placenta sample for placental malaria diagnosis, 2010–2014 Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

From: Factors associated with sub-microscopic placental malaria and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-negative women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cohort study

Characteristics Placenta sample
No (n = 1096)a Yes (n = 1404)
Maternal age in years, median (IQR) 22 (20–25) 22 (20–25)
Maternal age in years, n (%)
 24 and below 815 (74.7) 993 (71.0)
 25–34 268 (24.6) 388 (27.7)
 35 and above 8 (0.7) 18 (1.3)
Gestational age in weeksb, median (IQR) 10 (8–12) 10 (8–12)
Employment, n (%)
 Employedc 326 (29.9) 415 (29.9)
 Unemployed 620 (56.9) 764 (54.9)
 Other 144 (13.2) 214 (15.4)
Marital status, n (%)
 Living singled 100 (9.2) 141 (10.1)
 Married or cohabitating 989 (90.8) 1255 (89.9)
Years of education, n (%)
 0–7 774 (70.7) 1013 (72.2)
 8–11 270 (24.7) 316 (22.5)
 12 and above 51 (4.7) 75 (5.3)
Wealth quartile, n (%)
 1 (Lowest) 243 (23.7) 347 (26.4)
 2 259 (25.3) 306 (23.3)
 3 317 (30.9) 402 (30.6)
 4 (Highest) 206 (20.1) 261 (19.8)
Number of previous pregnancies, n (%)
 First 530 (48.4) 668 (47.7)
 Second 565 (51.6) 734 (52.4)
Twin pregnancy, n (%)
 Not twin 1080 (98.5) 1372 (97.7)
 Twin 16 (1.5) 32 (2.3)
Uses fumigation or mosquito coils or net at night, n (%)
 No 64 (5.9) 87 (6.3)
 Yes 1021 (94.1) 1304 (93.8)
Mid-upper arm circumference in cm, median (IQR) 26 (24–28) 26 (24–28)
Body mass index (kg/m2), median (IQR) 22.2 (20.2–25.4) 22.6 (20.1–25.7)
Body mass index (kg/m2), n (%)
 Underweight 112 (10.3) 151 (10.8)
 Normal 681 (62.7) 843 (60.5)
 Overweight or obese 293 (27.0) 400 (28.7)
Hemoglobin in g/dL, median (IQR) 11.6 (10.7–12.5) 11.6 (10.7–12.4)
Anemia status, n (%)
 Not anemic (Hb ≥ 11.0 g/dL) 738 (69.9) 938 (69.6)
 Anemic (Hb < 11.0 g/dL) 318 (30.1) 410 (30.4)
Peripheral malaria, n (%)
 Negative 740 (98.0) 1305 (98.1)
 Positive 15 (2.0) 26 (2.0)
  1. a Number of women excluded from the analysis due to missing placenta sample
  2. b Gestational age at enrollment based on the date of the last menstrual period
  3. c Employed includes skilled, unskilled, and informal employment
  4. d Living single includes never married, divorced, separated, and widow
  5. Note: Percentage may be slightly below or above 100% because of rounding