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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, management and complications in adults hospitalized with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Qatar

From: The first consecutive 5000 patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 from Qatar; a nation-wide cohort study

Variable Non-ICU (n = 1301) ICU (n = 108) P value
Baseline characteristics
Male sex 1067 (82%) 100 (92.6%) 0.005
Age (years) 38 (30–49) 49.5 (39.5–60) < 0.001
Age group (years)    < 0.001
 15–24 113 (8.7%) 3 (2.8%)  
 25–34 391 (30.1%) 12 (11.1%)  
 35–44 353 (27.1%) 24 (22.2%)  
 45–54 250 (19.2%) 25 (23.1%)  
 55–64 138 (10.6%) 28 (25.9%)  
  ≥ 65 56 (4.3%) 16 (14.8%)  
Nationality according to WHO region    0.005
 African Region 27 (2.1%) 2 (1.9%)  
 Eastern Mediterranean Region 449 (34.5%) 36 (33.3%)  
 European Region 22 (1.7%) 2 (1.9%)  
 Region of the Americas 11 (0.8%) 2 (1.9%)  
 South-East Asia Region 739 (56.8%) 52 (48.1%)  
 Western Pacific Region 53 (4.1%) 14 (13%)  
Healthcare workers 60 (4.6%) 3 (2.8%) 0.48
Pregnant 18 (1.4%) 1 (0.9%) 1.0
Diabetes mellitus 275 (21.1%) 52 (48.1%) < 0.001
Hypertension 248 (19.1%) 52 (48.1%) < 0.001
Coronary artery disease 31 (2.4%) 10 (9.3%) < 0.001
Chronic lung disease 73 (5.6%) 10 (9.3%) 0.12
Chronic liver disease 14 (1.1%) 4 (3.7%) 0.043
Chronic kidney disease 21 (1.6%) 13 (12%) < 0.001
Malignancy 18 (1.4%) 2 (1.9%) 0.66
Number of comorbidities    < 0.001
 None 859 (66.0%) 35 (32.4%)  
 One comorbidity 268 (20.6%) 33 (30.6%)  
 Two comorbidities 124 (9.5%) 20 (18.5%)  
 More than two comorbidities 50 (3.8%) 20 (18.5%)  
Current or past smoker 121/806 (15%) 9/52 (17.3%) 0.71
Mode of presentation    < 0.001
 Screening or contact tracing 390/1293 (30.2%) 0  
 Symptomatic 903/1293 (69.8%) 108 (100%)  
Symptoms
 Fever 710/1289 (55.1%) 105 (97.2%) < 0.001
 Cough 730/1289 (56.6%) 97 (89.8%) < 0.001
 Sore throat 345/1289 (26.8%) 21 (19.4%) 0.11
 Rhinorrhea 130/1289 (10.1%) 1 (0.9%) < 0.001
 Dyspnea 156/1289 (12.1%) 56 (51.9%) < 0.001
 Fatigue 121/1289 (9.4%) 15 (13.9%) 0.13
 Generalized pain 265/1289 (19.9%) 21 (19.4%) 0.9
 Diarrhea 53/1289 (4.1%) 2 (1.9%) 0.43
 Nausea and/or vomiting 52/1289 (4.0%) 10 (9.3%) 0.024
Measurements, vital signs, and laboratory results within the first 24 h of hospitalization
 Body mass indexa (kg/m2) 26.6 (23.8–29.7) 28.2 (25.8–31.6) < 0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 117.0 (108–127) 116 (103.5–126) 0.074
 Temperatureb (o C) 37.0 (36.8–37.9) 37.8 (37.1–38.7) < 0.001
 Hear ratec (beats per minute) 86 (78–97) 95 (86–108) < 0.001
 Respiratory rated (breaths per minute) 19 (18–20) 26.5 (20–32.5) < 0.001
 Oxygen saturatione (%) 98 (96–99) 94 (91–96) < 0.001
 White blood cell countf (×109 cells per L) 6.4 (5.0–7.9) 6.6 (5.2–8.6) 0.058
 Lymphocyte countg (× 109 cells per L) 1.7 (1.2–2.2) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) < 0.001
 Platelet countg (×109 cells per L) 235 (189–283) 202.5 (171.5–242.5) < 0.001
 Serum sodiumh (mmol/L) 138 (136–140) 135 (133–137) < 0.001
 Serum creatininei (μmol/L) 80 (68–90) 90 (76.5–108.5) < 0.001
 CRPj (mg/L) 7.0 (5–33.8) 107.7 (55.3–169.5) < 0.001
 ALTk (U/L) 27 (19–40) 32 (21.5–50.5) < 0.001
 Chest radiology showing pulmonary infiltrates 457/1275 (35.8%) 102 (94.4%) < 0.001
Management
 Highest respiratory support in the first 24 h of hospitalization    < 0.001
  Ambient air 1226 (94.2%) 7 (6.5%)  
  Oxygen via face mask or nasal canulae 75 (5.8%) 45 (41.7%)  
  Non–invasive mechanical ventilation 0 14 (13%)  
  Invasive mechanical ventilation 0 42 (38.9%)  
 Invasive mechanical ventilation anytime during hospitalization 0 91 (84.3%) < 0.001
 Vasopressor support 2 (0.2%) 66 (61.1%) < 0.001
 Renal replacement therapy 4 (0.3%) 16 (14.8%) < 0.001
 Antiviral and Anti–inflammatory Therapy    
  Hydroxychloroquine 936 (71.9%) 108 (100.0%) < 0.001
  Azithromycin 791 (60.8%) 107 (99.1%) < 0.001
  Lopinavir–ritonavir 435 (33.4%) 87 (80.6%) < 0.001
  Ribavirin 33 (2.5%) 74 (68.5%) < 0.001
  Interferon 1 (0.1%) 26 (24.1%) < 0.001
  Tocilizumab 12 (0.9%) 99 (91.7%) < 0.001
  Systemic corticosteroids 7 (0.5%) 71 (65.7%) < 0.001
Complications
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome 0 94 (87%) < 0.001
 Acute kidney injury 20 (1.5%) 47 (43.5%) < 0.001
 Myocardial injury 4 (0.3%) 16 (14.8%) < 0.001
 Thromboembolism 0 3 (2.8%) < 0.001
 Arrhythmia 0 4 (3.7%) < 0.001
Length of stay (days)
 Hospital length of stay 7 (3–12) 24.5 (19–37.5) < 0.001
 ICU length of stay NA 12 (8–21) NA
  1. Data are median (IQR), n (%), or n/N (%), where N is the total number of patients with available data. P values comparing ICU and non-ICU are from Pearson’s chi-squared test, Fisher’s exact test, or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. aData missing for 246 (17.5%). bData missing for 16, (1.1%). cData missing for 179 (12.7%). dData missing for 33 (2.3%). eData missing for 20 (1.4%). fData missing for 37 (2.6%). gData missing for 42 (3%). hData missing for 39 (2.8%). iData missing for 43 (3.1%). jData missing for 148 (10.5%). kData missing for 83 (5.9%). ALT Alanine transaminase; CRP C-reactive protein; ICU Intensive care unit; NA Not applicable; WHO World Health Organization