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Table 1 Demographics, baseline characteristics, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with 2019-nCoV pneumonia

From: Confirmed or unconfirmed cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Italian patients: a retrospective analysis of clinical features

Variable Total (n = 165) Confirmed Diagnosisa (n = 119) Unconfirmed Diagnosisa (n = 46) P Value OR (95% CI)b
Age (years), median (IQR) 70 (58–78) 68 (58–77) 73.5 (58–85) 0.09
Male sex 113 (68.5) 85 (71.4) 28 (60.9) 0.19
Pre-existing conditions
 Any 123 (74.6) 86 (72.3) 37 (80.4) 0.28
 Cardiovascular disease 77 (46.7) 59 (49.6) 18 (39.1) 0.23
 Connective tissue disease 30 (18.2) 23 (19.3) 7 (15.2) 0.54
 Nervous system disease 29 (17.6) 18 (15.1) 11 (23.9) 0.18
 Diabetes 22 (13.3) 15 (12.6) 7 (15.2) 0.66
 Malignancy 21 (12.7) 12 (10.1) 9 (19.6) 0.10
 Respiratory system disease 18 (10.9) 12 (10.1) 6 (13.0) 0.59
 Chronic kidney disease 15 (9.1) 8 (6.7) 7 (15.2) 0.09
 Immunodeficiency 7 (4.2) 3 (2.5) 4 (8.7) 0.08
 Chronic liver disease 3 (1.8) 3 (2.5) 0 (0.0) 0.28
 Otherc 29 (17.6) 17 (14.3) 12 (26.1) 0.07
Symptoms at admission
 Fever 155 (93.9) 115 (96.6) 40 (87.0) 0.02
 Shortness of breath (or dyspnea) 92 (55.8) 63 (52.9) 29 (63.0) 0.24
 Cough 77 (46.7) 60 (50.4) 17 (37.0) 0.12
 Diarrhea/Nausea/Vomiting 6 (3.6) 3 (2.5) 3 (6.5) 0.22
 Days from symptom onset, median (IQR) 7 (3–10) 7 (3–10) 7 (3–10) 0.41
Signs at admission, median (IQR)
 Heart rate (beats/min) 89 (80–101) 89 (80–102) 92 (80–100) 0.99
 Respiration rate (breaths/min) 14 (12–15) 14 (12–16) 13 (12–15) 0.24
 Blood oxygen saturation (%) 94 (90–96) 94 (90–96) 93 (90–97) 0.74
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130 (120–140) 130 (120–140) 130 (118–140) 0.97
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 (70–86) 80 (70–86) 75 (66–88) 0.56
 qSOFA score (≥2) 25 (15.2) 17 (14.3) 8 (17.4) 0.62
Chest X-ray/CT findings
 Ground-glass opacity (GGO) 127 (77.0) 96 (80.7) 31 (67.4) 0.07
 Consolidation 106 (64.2) 79 (66.4) 27 (58.7) 0.35
 Pleural effusion 40 (24.2) 24 (20.2) 16 (34.8) 0.19
CT findings onlyd
 GGO and reticular 29/112 (17.6) 21/76 (17.6) 8/36 (17.4) 0.54
 Pleural thickening/retraction 6/112 (3.6) 3/76 (2.5) 3/36 (6.5) 0.34
 Fibrotic steaks 5/112 (3.0) 3/76 (2.5) 2/36 (4.3) 0.70
 Air bronchogram 3/112 (1.8) 2/76 (1.7) 1/36 (2.2) 0.96
 Bronchus distortion 2/112 (1.2) 2/76 (1.7) 0/36 (0.0) 0.33
Spectrum of disease
 Mild 101 (61.2) 72 (60.5) 29 (63.0) 0.76
 Severe 53 (32.1) 39 (32.8) 14 (30.4) 0.77
 Critical 11 (6.7) 8 (6.7) 3 (6.5) 0.96
Blood parameters, median (IQR)
 Leucocytes (×109/L; normal range 4.0–10.0) 6.4 (4.8–9.7) 6.0 (4.7–8.1) 10.1 (6.1–15.4) < 0.001 0.81 (0.72–0.90)
 Neutrophils (×109/L; normal range 2.0–7.0) 4.9 (3.5–7.7) 4.6 (3.3–6.3) 7.7 (4.6–11.7) < 0.001
 Lymphocytes (×109/L; normal range 1.0–3.0) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 1.2 (0.7–1.6) 0.78
 Neutrophils (%) 77.1 (69.5–82.8) 76.3 (67.6–82.4) 80.1 (71.9–87.3) 0.03
 Lymphocytes (%) 15.8 (10.5–23.4) 17.6 (12.5–24.3) 12.1 (7.6–20.4) 0.003
 Platelets (×109/L; normal range 150–450) 210 (169–264) 203 (165–252) 250 (189–301) 0.01
 Hemoglobin (g/dL; normal range 13–17) 13.8 (12.1–14.9) 14.1 (13.0–15.1) 12.1 (10.6–14.1) < 0.001 1.34 (1.11–1.65)
Serum parameters, median (IQR)
 Alanine aminotransferase (U/L; normal range 7–45) 24 (16–39) 26 (17–40) 19 (13–33) 0.02
 Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L; normal range 120–250) 289 (230–415) 316 (254–433) 245 (195–336) < 0.001 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
 Creatinine (mg/dL; normal range: 0.7–1.1) 0.9 (0.8–1.3) 0.9 (0.8–1.3) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.59
 Creatine kinase (U/L; normal range 30–170) 120 (66–219) 122 (72–218) 107 (51–219) 0.36
 Urea (mg/dL; normal range 10–23) 17 (14–26) 17 (13–25) 19 (15–32) 0.32
Infection-related biomarkers, median (IQR)
 Procalcitonin (ng/mL; normal range 0–0.5) 0.09 (0.04–0.18) 0.08 (0.04–0.15) 0.15 (0.07–0.63) 0.006
 C-reactive protein (mg/L; normal range 0–5.0) 74.0 (32.2–139.4) 66.9 (33.6–130.5) 93.6 (22.1–163.9) 0.59
Complications
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome 92 (55.8) 75 (63.0) 17 (37.0) 0.003 e
 Liver injury 47 (28.5) 38 (31.9) 9 (19.6) 0.11 e
 Septic shock 14 (8.5) 7 (5.9) 7 (15.2) 0.06 e
 Admission to intensive care unit 14 (8.5) 12 (10.1) 2 (4.4) 0.23 e
Treatment
 Oxygen support (nasal cannula) 128 (77.6) 98 (82.4) 30 (65.2) 0.02 e
 Antiviral therapy 122 (73.9) 113 (95.0) 9 (19.6) < 0.001 e
 Antibiotic therapy 133 (80.6) 93 (78.2) 40 (87.0) 0.20 e
 Interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor therapy 46 (27.9) 45 (37.8) 1 (2.2) < 0.001 e
Outcome
 Discharged 125 (75.8) 88 (74.0) 37 (80.4) 0.38 e
 Still in hospital as of 4/23/2020f 24 (14.6) 20 (16.8) 4 (8.7) 0.18 e
 Died 16 (9.7) 11 (9.2) 5 (10.9) 0.75 e
  1. Data are no. (%) unless specified otherwise. Denominators indicate data lacking for 53 patients. Abbreviations: OR, Odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; IQR, interquartile range; qSOFA, quick sepsis-related organ failure assessment; CT, computed tomography
  2. aLaboratory-based confirmation of 2019-nCoV pneumonia was done by SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection using a well-established RT-PCR assay [9]
  3. bAccording to multivariable logistic regression model analysis (see text for details)
  4. cIncludes anemia, endocrine disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity
  5. dCT findings in all 112 patients were assessed according to imaging features described elsewhere [10]
  6. eNot calculated because the relative variable was not entered into multivariable logistic regression model (see text for details)
  7. fPatients were admitted between 3/6/2020 and 3/31/2020, with follow-up through 4/23/2020