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Table 2 Diagnostic utility of symptoms and signs for bacteremic UTI

From: Presence of urinary symptoms in bacteremic urinary tract infection: a retrospective cohort study of Escherichia coli bacteremia

  Sensitivity
% (95% CI)
Specificity
% (95% CI)
PLR
(95% CI)
NLR
(95% CI)
Urinary symptoms
 Dysuria 22 (18–27) 93 (88–96) 3.0 (1.7–5.4) 0.84 (0.78–0.90)
 Urinary urgency 7 (4–10) 97 (94–99) 2.4 (0.9–6.3) 0.96 (0.92–1.00)
 Urinary frequency 22 (17–27) 97 (94–99) 7.6 (3.1–18.7) 0.81 (0.76–0.86)
 Gross hematuria 5 (3–8) 99 (96–100) 4.4 (1.0–19.1) 0.96 (0.93–0.99)
 Flank pain 18 (14–23) 94 (89–97) 3.0 (1.6–5.5) 0.87 (0.81–0.93)
 Suprapubic abdominal pain 15 (11–20) 96 (91–98) 3.4 (1.6–7.0) 0.89 (0.83–0.94)
 Urinary retention 4 (2–7) 97 (94–99) 1.4 (0.5–3.9) 0.99 (0.96–1.02)
Urinary signs
 Suprapubic tenderness 7 (5–11) 96 (91–98) 1.6 (0.7–3.5) 0.97 (0.93–1.02)
 CVA tenderness 10 (7–14) 97 (93–98) 2.9 (1.2–6.9) 0.93 (0.89–0.98)
Any urinary symptoms or signs 57 (51–62) 77 (70–83) 2.5 (1.8–3.3) 0.56 (0.48–0.66)
Urinalysis
 Proteinuria 82 (76–86) 29 (22–37) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.64 (0.44–0.93)
 Hematuria 89 (84–92) 27 (21–35) 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 0.41 (0.26–0.64)
 Leukocytes 90 (85–93) 48 (39–56) 1.7 (1.4–2.0) 0.22 (0.15–0.33)
 Nitrite 49 (43–55) 71 (63–78) 1.7 (1.3–2.3) 0.72 (0.62–0.85)
 Leukocytes or nitrites 92 (88–95) 43 (35–52) 1.6 (1.4–1.9) 0.18 (0.11–0.28)