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Table 2 Factors associated with the risk of severe laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, Mexico 2020

From: Male gender and kidney illness are associated with an increased risk of severe laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease

  Bivariate analysis   Multiple analysis  
RR 95% CI p RR 95% CI p
Sex
 Female 1.00     1.00    
 Male 1.18 1.10 1.25 <  0.001 1.13 1.06 1.20 <  0.001
Age (years)
 15–29 1.00     1.00    
 30–44 1.04 0.96 1.13 0.354 1.02 0.94 1.11 0.585
 45–59 1.37 1.25 1.49 <  0.001 1.26 1.15 1.38 <  0.001
  ≥ 60 1.61 1.45 1.79 <  0.001 1.44 1.29 1.60 <  0.001
Received antyperitc drugs (any)
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 0.96 0.90 1.02 0.198 0.96 0.90 1.01 0.136
Elapsed days from symptoms onset to health-care seeking
  < 1 1.00     1.00    
 1–3 0.91 0.85 0.99 0.039 0.96 0.89 1.02 0.213
 4 or above 1.11 1.02 1.20 <  0.001 1.06 0.99 1.13 0.102
Acute symptoms profile
Fever
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.13 1.03 1.25 0.010 1.07 0.98 1.17 0.109
Odynophagia
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 0.91 0.85 0.97 0.005 0.95 0.89 1.01 0.060
Myalgia/arthralgia
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 0.92 0.85 0.99 0.031 0.95 0.88 1.02 0.142
Thoracic pain
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.20 1.13 1.28 <  0.001 1.16 1.10 1.24 <  0.001
Personal history of
Tobacco use (ever)
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.15 1.04 1.28 0.009 1.06 0.97 1.17 0.210
Obesity (BMI 30 or higher)
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.14 1.05 1.23 0.001 1.05 0.98 1.13 0.185
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.49 1.26 1.77 <  0.001 1.12 0.95 1.31 0.183
  Bivariate analysis   Multiple analysis  
RR 95% CI p RR 95% CI p
Arterial hypertension
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.32 1.22 1.42 <  0.001 1.05 0.97 1.14 0.207
Cardiovascular disease
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.39 1.14 1.69 0.001 1.09 0.91 1.31 0.372
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.34 1.23 1.47 <  0.001 1.06 0.96 1.16 0.239
Chronic kidney disease
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.65 1.29 2.10 <  0.001 1.31 1.04 1.64 0.020
Immunosuppression
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.33 1.08 1.64 0.008 1.14 0.94 1.37 0.180
  1. Abbreviations: COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019, RR Risk Ratios estimated through linear regression models, BMI Body mass index
  2. Notes: 1) SuperScript™ III Platinum™ One-Step qRT-PCR Kits were used to confirm the CoViD-19; 2) The definition of severe COVID-19 included laboratory conclusive evidence of infection and dyspnea and hospital admission; 3) Risk ratios from multiple analysis were adjusted by the variables listed in the table