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Table 1 Characteristics of the 30 neonates infected with Enterobacter cloacae in one NICU setting between January 2012 and January 2018

From: Enterobacter cloacae colonisation and infection in a neonatal intensive care unit: retrospective investigation of preventive measures implemented after a multiclonal outbreak

Basic data
 sex ratio (M/F) 17/13
 gestational age of birth (weeks)a 28.6 [24.3–41.1]
 birth weight (g)a 930 [515–3770]
 intra-uterine growth retardation, no (%) 10 (33.3%)
 antenatal corticosteroids, no (%) 26 (86.7%)
 caesarean, no (%) 25 (83.3%)
 Apgar score (5 min)a 9 [1–10]
 surgery before sepsis, no (%) 2 (6.7%)
E. cloacae in the vaginal sample of the mother, no (%) 1 (3.3%)
Sepsis data
 colonization with E. cloacae before sepsis, no (%) 4 (13.3%)
 age at the onset of sepsis (days)a 7 [0–50]
 fever, no (%) 11 (36.7%)
 respiratory signs, no (%) 21 (70%)
 hemodynamic signs, no (%) 27 (90%)
 gastrointestinal signs, no (%) 15 (50%)
 hyperglycaemia, no (%) 4 (13.3%)
 central venous line at onset, no (%) 23 (76.7%)
 CSF positive for E. cloacae, no (%) 2/18b (11%)
Evolution
 length of staya,d 47 [10–185]
 necrotizing enterocolitis, no (%) 4 (13.3%)
 death / death caused by sepsis, no (%) 12 (40%)/ 10 (33.3%)
 delay between onset of sepsis and death (days)a 3 [0–26]
Management
 central venous line removal, no (%) 7/23c (30.4%)
Antibiotics
 Carbapenem, no (%) 24 (80%)
 Cephalosporins, no (%) 24 (80%)
 Aminoglycosides, no (%) 30 (100%)
 Ciprofloxacin, no (%) 5 (16.7%)
 Piperacillin, no (%) 1 (3.3%)
 duration of antibiotic (days)a,d 15 [10–34]
  1. aValues are median [extremes]
  2. bA bacterial analysis of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) was performed in only 18 of the 30 patients
  3. cOnly 23 of the 30 patients patients had a central line at the onset of the sepsis
  4. dData are presented for the 18 patients who survived