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Table 3 No difference regarding infection type (monomicrobial, polymicrobial, germ-change) was evident when compared trauma/accident, antibiotics initially used and duration of initial antibiotic treatment. The same applies for metallic implants which still were in place at time of revision surgery and previous revision surgeries for infected nonunion at referral hospitals prior to definitive surgical treatment

From: Polymicrobial infections and microbial patterns in infected nonunions – a descriptive analysis of 42 cases

  infection type Pearson χ2 Test
mono [n / %] poly [n / %] germ-change [n / %] [value / df] p-value
trauma / accident pathological 0 / 0 0 / 0 1 / 7.1 13.486 / 16 0.701
motorcycle 1 / 4.5 0 / 0 1 /7.1
car accident 5 / 22.7 1 / 16.7 1 / 7.1
fall > 3 m 2 / 9.1 0 / 0 1 / 7.1
fall < 3 m 7 / 31.8 3 / 50.0 5 / 35.7
pedestrian 2 / 9.1 2 / 33.3 2 / 14.3
shot 2 / 9.1 0 / 0 0 / 0
unknown 1 / 4.5 0 / 0 3 / 21.4
bicycle 2 / 9.1 0 / 0 0 / 0
antibiotics unknown 9 / 40.9 0 / 0 4 / 26.7 11.459 / 10 0.307
cefazolin 8 / 36.4 5 / 83.3 7 / 46.7
ciprofloxacin 1 / 4.5 0 / 0 1 / 6.7
cefazolin / gentamicin 2 / 9.1 1 / 16.7 1 / 6.7
clindamycin 0 / 0 0 / 0 2 / 13.3
ampicillin / sulbactam 2 / 9.1 0 / 0 0 / 0
duration of initial antibiotic therapy <  24 h 2 / 14.3 0 / 0 1 / 10.0 2.857 / 4 0.643
24–72 h 4 / 28.6 4 / 66.7 4 / 40.0
>  72 h 8 / 57.1 2 / 33.3 5 / 50.0
metal in situ no 1 / 4.5 0 / 0 0 / 0 0.977 / 2 0.613
yes 21 / 95.5 6 / 100 14 / 100