Definition and constructs
Age, gender, years of study, ethnic and family background, religion, and marital status
Interaction with PLHIV
Ever known of someone who has HIV, ever participated in HIV courses or classroom discussion, ever participated in HIV training, and awareness of HIV-related guidelines or protocols
Access to information and media
The estimated time spent on media and social media (TV, radio, internet, newspaper/magazines, Facebook, and Twitter).
Asian Value Scales
Adherence to Asian culture; conformity to norms, family recognition through achievement, emotional self-control, collectivism, humility, and filial piety.
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.898
Beliefs and Values Scales
Assessing the level of religiosity and spirituality among study participants
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.859
Basic knowledge of HIV and AIDS; modes of transmission, prevention method, treatment, and human rights.
Kuder-Richardson (KR)-20 = 0.762
HIV-nutrition specific knowledge
Nutrition care process (NCP) for HIV patients; nutrition assessment, diagnosis, intervention, monitoring and evaluation, counseling, as well as infant and young child feeding practices
Attitudes towards PLHIV measured through agreements with sixteen statements, which include willingness to treat PLHIV (8 items), personal responsibility or blame (1 item), perceived dangerousness and fear (4 items), controllability (1 item), and respect patients’ rights (2 items)
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.763