Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies (n = 15)

From: Evaluation of lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for diagnostic accuracy of cryptococcosis

No. First author Year Geographical distribution of strains Study design Patient population Sample type(s) Sample size Reference standard Brand of LFA-test
1 Lindsley 2011 Thailand prospective HIV Serum Urine 538 EIA IMMY
2 Binnicker 2012 USA prospective& retrospective SC Serum 634 LA IMMY
3 McMullan 2012 Australia retrospective SC Serum 106 Comprehensive reference3 IMMY
4 Escandón 2013 Colombia retrospective HIV Serum 421 LA IMMY
5 Hansen 2013 USA prospective SC Serum CSF 1000 EIA IMMY
6 Rugemalila 2013 Tanzania prospective SC Serum 319 LA IMMY
7 Boulware 2014 Uganda& South Africa prospective& retrospective HIV SM CSF 666 Culture IMMY
8 Lourens 2014 South Africa prospective HIV SM CSF 465 Culture/LA IMMY
9 Rivet-Dañon 2015 France prospective& retrospective IFI1 SC HIV Serum CSF 292 LA IMMY
10 Suwantarat 2015 America retrospective &prospective SC Serum CSF 1047 EIA/Enhanced reference4 IMMY
11 Jitmuang 2016 America retrospective HIV-N Serum CSF 59 LA IMMY
12 Cáceres 2017 Colombia retrospective CIB2 Serum CSF 83 LA IMMY
13 Frola 2017 Argentina prospective HIV Serum 123 Comprehensive reference5 IMMY
14 Temfack 2018 Cameroon prospective HIV Serum 186 EIA IMMY
15 Drain 2019 South Africa prospective HIV VWB FCB Urine 3447 EIA/Combined reference6 IMMY
  1. HIV hunman immunodeficiency virus, SC suspected cryptococcosis, SM suspected meningitis, HIV-N HIV-negative, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, VWB venous whole blood, FCB fingerprick capillary blood, LA latex agglutination method, EIA enzyme-linked immunoassay, LFA lateral flow assay, IMMY Immuno-Mycologics. 1:patients proven or probable invasive fungal infection other than cryptococcosis; 2:patients with or without diagnosis of cryptococcosis were randomly selected from a collection of iological samples stored in the CIB’s biobank; 3:Cryptococcosis was proven if the organism was detected by one or more of ulture, histopathology or molecular tests; 4:An enhanced reference method includes data from histopathology, cytopathology, ungal culture, and patient clinical history in addition to EIA results; 5:Pathogen identification of isolates from positive blood cultures was performed using standard microbiology methods (morphological and biochemical tests); 6:A combined reference standard for either a positive CrAg EIA or latex agglutination test