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Table 2 Association between HIV infection status and clinical outcomes of sickle cell disease

From: Association of HIV infection with clinical and laboratory characteristics of sickle cell disease

  HIV-positive (n = 15) HIV-negative (n = 60) Effect-size measure (95% CI)a P-value
Clinical manifestations n (%)   
Composite outcomes
Any SCD complications
 Yes 13(92.9) 45 (76.3) HR = 4.6 (1.1–19.6) 0.04
 No 1(7.1) 14 (23.7)   
HIV-related complications
 Yes 13 (92.9) 40 (67.8) HR = 7.7 (1.5–40.2) 0.02
 No 1(7.1) 19 (32.2)   
Any infectionsb
 Yes 11(78.6) 32 (57.1) HR = 3.5 (0.92–13.4) 0.07
 No 3 (21.4) 24 (42.9)   
Single outcomes
Acute chest syndrome/pneumoniab
 Yes 11 (78.6) 31 (57.4) HR = 2.12 (0.56–8.2) 0.27
 No 3 (21.4) 23 (42.6)   
Cholecystitisb
 Yes 0 (0) 2 (3.4)   > 0.99c
 No 15 (100) 57 (96.6)   
Sepsis/Bacteremia
 Yes 1 (6.7) 1 (1.7)   0.36c
 No 14 (93.3) 59 (98.3)   
Splenic sequestration
 Yes 1 (6.7) 4 (6.8)   > 0.99c
 No 14 (93.3) 55 (93.2)   
Chronic renal failure
 Yes 1(6.7) 3 (5)   > 0.99c
 No 14 (93.3) 57 (95)   
Pyelonephritis
 Yes 1 (6.7) 0 (0)   0.20c
 No 14 (93.3) 60 (100)   
Osteomyelitis
 Yes 0 (0) 1 (1.7)   > 0.99c
 No 15 (100) 57 (98.3)   
Avascular necrosis
 Yes 2 (13.3) 11 (18.3)   > 0.99c
 No 13 (86.7) 49 (81.7)   
Ischemic stroke
 Yes 2 (13.3) 4 (6.7)   0.59c
 No 13 (86.7) 56 (93.3)   
Hemorrhagic stroke
 Yes 1 (6.7) 0 (0)   0.20c
 No 14 (93.3) 60 (100)   
Abnormal TCDb
 Yes 1(25) 2 (11.1) HR = 1.14 (0.10–12.7) 0.92
 No 3 (75) 16 (88.9)   
Proliferative sickle retinopathyb
 Yes 0 (0) 9 (25)   0.3c
 No 6 (100) 27 (75)   
Priapism (males)b
 Yes 0 (0) 2 (7.1)   > 0.99c
 No 7 (100) 26 (92.9)   
Leg ulcers
 Yes 1 (6.7) 7 (11.7) HR = 1.27 (0.13–12.4) 0.84
 No 14 (93.3) 53 (88.3)   
Pulmonary hypertensionb
 Yes 1 (20) 2 (6.5)   0.37c
 No 4 (80) 29 (93.5)   
Ischemic stroke/abnormal TCD
 Yes 3 (20) 5 (8.5) HR = 2.4 (0.39–14.3) 0.34
 No 12 (80) 54 (91.5)   
Hospitalizations in previous year
 Yes 4 (26.7) 18 (30) IRR = 0.5 (0.2–1.0) 0.05
 No 11 (73.3) 42 (70)   
Sickle cell pain in previous year
 Yes 2 (13.3) 14 (23.3) IRR = 0.3 (0.1–1.4) 0.13
 No 13 (86.7) 46 (76.7)   
  1. aThe result of the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was presented as a priority stratified by matched group; due to insufficient number of events, the cox proportional-hazards model did not fit, and no effect-size measure was presented. bvariables with missing values. cFisher exact test. CI confidence interval; SCD sickle cell disease; TCD transcranial Doppler; HR hazard ratio; IRR incidence risk ratio; “Any SCD complication” was defined as the presence of any of the following complications during the patient’s lifetime: acute chest syndrome, cholecystitis, sepsis/bacteremia, meningitis, splenic sequestration, acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, avascular necrosis, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD), retinopathy, priapism, leg ulcers, vaso-occlusive episode, or pulmonary hypertension; “HIV-related complications” was defined as the presence of any of the following complications during the patient’s lifetime: pneumonia, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, sepsis/bacteremia, meningitis, ischemic stroke, avascular necrosis, pulmonary hypertension, or chronic renal failure; “Any infections” was defined as the presence of any of the following complications during the patient’s lifetime: acute chest syndrome/pneumonia, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, sepsis/bacteremia, or meningitis