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Table 2 Diagnostic performance of the eight scent detection dogs

From: Scent dog identification of samples from COVID-19 patients – a pilot study

  Detect-ion by dog SARS-CoV-2 infection status Total number Diagnostic specificity (Sp) Diagnositic sensitivity (Se) Standard Error (SE) Sp Standard Error (SE) Se Confidence Interval (95%CI) Sp Confidence Interval (95%CI) Se Negative predictive value (NPV) Positive predictive value (PPV) Standard Error (SE) NPV Standard Error (SE) PPV Confidence Interval (95%CI) NPV Confidence Interval (95%CI) PPV
negative positive
Dog 1 No 89 3 113 0.99 0.87 0.01 0.07 0.002 0.029 0.97 0.95 0.02 0.04 0.004 0.018
Yes 1 20              
Dog 2 No 91 1 115 0.97 0.95 0.02 0.05 0.004 0.020 0.99 0.87 0.48 0.07 0.097 0.031
Yes 3 20              
Dog 3 No 81 2 104 0.99 0.91 0.01 0.06 0.003 0.026 0.98 0.95 0.62 0.05 0.134 0.019
Yes 1 20              
Dog 4 No 95 4 120 0.97 0.82 0.02 0.08 0.003 0.034 0.96 0.86 0.69 0.07 0.136 0.031
Yes 3 18              
Dog 5 No 110 2 135 0.97 0.91 0.02 0.06 0.003 0.026 0.98 0.87 0.53 0.07 0.099 0.030
Yes 3 20              
Dog 6 No 137 8 170 0.96 0.71 0.02 0.09 0.003 0.032 0.94 0.80 0.78 0.08 0.129 0.028
Yes 5 20              
Dog 7 No 92 5 122 0.95 0.80 0.02 0.08 0.004 0.031 0.95 0.80 0.78 0.08 0.156 0.031
Yes 5 20              
Dog 8 No 97 8 133 0.92 0.70 0.03 0.09 0.005 0.033 0.92 0.68 0.89 0.09 0.170 0.034
Yes 9 19              
Total No 792 33 1012 0.96 0.83 0.01 0.03 0.0004 0.004 0.96 0.84 1.18 0.03 0.081 0.004
Yes 30 157