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Table 5 Unweighted pooled estimate of risk factors associated with self-reported syndromic STIs among People Who Inject Drugs (N = 492), Mozambique 2014

From: High burden of self-reported sexually transmitted infections among key populations in Mozambique: the urgent need for an integrated surveillance system

Variables Prevalence Crude Odds Ratio Adjusted Odds Ratio
n/N (%) OR 95% CI p-value aOR 95% CI p-value
Survey City
 Maputo 46/353 13.0 7.0 4.4–11.0 < 0.001 REF   
 Nampula/Nacala 71/139 51.1     4.8 2.3–10.3 < 0.001
Sex
 Female 6/25 24.0 1.0 0.4–2.6 0.979 1.4 0.4–5.0 0.576
 Male 111/467 23.8 REF    REF   
Age (years)
 18–24 32/92 34.8 2.0 1.2–3.2 0.007 1.0 0.5–2.3 0.955
 25 and over 85/400 21.3 REF    REF   
Marital Status
 Single or never married 54/289 18.7 REF      
 Married/Co-habiting 34/103 33.0 2.1 1.3–3.6 0.056 1.6 0.8–3.4 0.947
 Other (widowed, divorced or separated) 29/100 29.0 1.8 1.1–3.0 0.448 2.4 1.2–5.0 0.055
Education Level
 No education or Primary level education 37/210 17.6 REF      
 Secondary education or higher 80/281 28.5 1.9 1.2–2.9 0.006 0.9 0.5–1.7 0.849
Circumcised (Males only, n = 193)
 Yes 89/307 29.0 2.6 1.5–4.3 < 0.001    
 No 22/160 13.8 REF      
HIV infection
 Positive 44/204 21.6 0.8 0.5–1.2 0.222 1.6 0.8–3.0 0.197
 Negative 64/241 26.6 REF    REF   
Comprehensive prevention services**
 Yes 41/78 52.6 4.9 3.0–8.2 < 0.001 2.3 1.2–4.5 0.011
 No 76/414 18.4 REF    REF   
Phyisical Violencea
 Yes 22/77 28.6 1.3 0.8–2.3 0.283    
 Never 95/415 22.9 REF      
Sexual Violencea,b
 Yes 1/6 16.7 0.6 0.1–5.5 0.684    
 No 116/486 23.9 REF      
Experienced stigmaa
 Yes 39/84 27.4 3.8 2.3–6.2 < 0.001 1.0 0.5–1.9 0.974
 No 72/387 14.7 REF    REF   
Condom use at last sexual encounter
 Yes 36/173 20.8 1.7 0.9–3.3 0.957 1.0 0.4–2.4 0.888
 No 67/214 31.3 2.9 1.6–5.5 < 0.001 1.1 0.5–2.7 0.726
 Not sexually active 14/104 13.5 REF    REF   
Received drugs in exchange for sex
 Yes 27/67 40.3 2.5 1.5–4.3 0.001 2.2 1.0–4.7 0.040
 No 90/424 21.2 REF    REF   
  1. a Last 12 m (PWID)
  2. b Fishers exact test
  3. **Comprehensive prevention services refers to peer education & Information education and communication (IEC) materials