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Table 3 Unweighted pooled estimate of risk factors associated with self-reported Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men who have sex with men (n = 1432), Mozambique 2012

From: High burden of self-reported sexually transmitted infections among key populations in Mozambique: the urgent need for an integrated surveillance system

Variables Prevalence Crude Odds Ratio Adjusted Odds Ratio
n/N % OR 95% CI p-value aOR 95% CI p-value
Survey City
 Maputo 54/496 10.9 0.8 0.5–1.3 0.104    
 Beira 89/583 15.3 1.2 0.8–1.8 0.058    
 Nampula/Nacala 45/353 12.8 REF      
Age (years)
 18–24 127/1134 11.2 REF    REF   
 25 and over 61/298 20.5 2.0 1.5–2.9 < 0.001 1.2 0.8–1.8 0.395
Relationship status
 Single or never married 134/1198 11.2 REF    REF   
 Married/co-habituating, with woman 29/102 28.4 3.2 2.0–5.0 0.008 1.8 1.0–3.2 0.273
 Married/cohabitating with mana 9/48 18.8 1.8 0.9–3.9 0.988 1.6 0.7–3.7 0.672
 Other (widowed, divorced or separated) 16/80 20.0 2.0 1.1–3.5 0.749 1.4 0.7–2.6 0.893
Education Level
 No education or Primary education 41/238 17.2 1.5 1.0–2.2 0.043 1.2 0.8–1.8 0.463
 Secondary education or higher 147/1191 12.3 REF    REF   
Employment Status
 Employed 134/855 15.7 1.8 1.3–2.5 < 0.001 1.3 0.9–1.8 0.242
 Unemployed 54/573 9.4 REF    REF   
Circumcised
 Yes 99/919 10.8 REF    REF   
 No 89/510 17.5 1.8 1.3–2.4 < 0.001 1.9 1.3–2.6 < 0.001
HIV infection
 Positive 34/114 29.8 3.1 2.0–4.9 < 0.001 2.0 1.2–3.4 0.009
 Negative 151/1262 12.0 REF    REF   
Comprehensive prevention services**
 Yes 71/467 15.2 1.3 0.9–1.8 0.111    
 No 117/962 12.2 REF      
Binge drinking (6 or more alcoholic drinks per event)
 Yes 77/473 16.3 1.4 1.1–2.0 0.022 1.3 0.9–1.8 0.199
 No 111/912 11.8 REF    REF   
Illicit drug use
 Yes 30/139 21.6 2.0 1.3–3.1 0.002 2.2 1.4–3.6 0.001
 No 158/1290 12.3 REF    REF   
Physical violence
 Yes 10/51 19.6 1.6 0.8–3.3 0.170    
 No 178/1377 12.9 REF      
Sexual violence
 Yes 6/18 33.3 3.4 1.3–9.1 0.016 1.3 0.4–4.3 0.720
 No 181/1409 12.9 REF    REF   
Experienced stigma
 Yes 23/129 17.8 1.5 0.9–2.4 0.101    
 No 165/1300 12.7 REF      
Concurrent male and female partner
 Yes 109/736 14.8 1.4 1.0–1.8 0.057 1.4 1.0–1.9 0.088
 No 79/693 11.4 REF    REF   
Receptive anal sex, with man
 Yes 79/523 15.1 1.3 1.0–1.8 0.098 1.4 1.0–2.0 0.043
 No 109/906 12.0 REF    REF   
Insertive anal sex, with man
 Yes 163/1219 13.4 1.1 0.7–1.8 0.562    
 No 25/210 11.9 REF      
Condom use at last sexual encounter, with man
 No Condom 114/1021 11.2 1.8 1.3–2.4 < 0.001 1.8 1.2–2.5 0.001
 Yes Condom 74/400 18.0 REF    REF   
Paid or received sex in exchange for money, with man
 Yes 88/636 13.8 1.1 0.8–1.5 0.507    
 No 100/791 12.6 REF      
  1. Notes
  2. a 2 men who have sex with men (MSM) living with men were legally married to a woman
  3. **Comprehensive prevention services refers to peer education & Information education and communication (IEC) materials
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