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Table 3 Factors associated with bacteriological positivity among pulmonary TB patients in Tianjin China, 2017–2018

From: Comparison of different bacteriological testing strategies and factors for bacteriological confirmation among pulmonary TB patients: a retrospective study in Tianjin, China, 2017–2018

Characteristic (n) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) P by
wald χ2
Gender (2484)
 Male ref ref 0.85
 Female 0.8 (0.7–1.0) 1.0 (0.8–1.2)
Age (2484)
  < 25 yr a ref ref 0.19
 25–44 1.2 (1.0–1.6) 1.1 (0.7–1.5)
 45–64 2.0 (1.6–2.6) 1.2 (0.8–1.9)
  ≥ 65 yr 2.9 (2.1–3.9) 1.6 (1.0–2.7)
Ethnic group (2484)
 Han ref ref 0.66
 Minority 1.2 (0.6–2.3) 1.2 (0.5–2.9)
Migrant (2484)
 No ref ref 0.37
 Yes 0.5 (0.4–0.6) 1.2 (0.8–1.6)
Occupation (2484)
 Student ref ref 0.02
 Unemployed 3.2 (2.3–4.4) 1.5 (1.0–2.2)
 Farmer 2.1 (1.5–3.1) 1.7 (1.1–2.8)
 Service/manufacture b 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.2 (0.7–1.9)
 State employee 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 0.9 (0.6–1.4)
 Retiree 2.3 (1.7–3.3) 1.3 (0.8–1.9)
 Not provided/unclear 2.4 (1.6–3.7) 0.9 (0.5–1.5)
Hospital pattern of diagnosis (2484)
 City-level TB clinic ref ref < 0.01
 City-level TB hospital c 4.3 (3.5–5.4) 3.4 (2.6–4.4)
 District-level TB clinics 1.6 (1.2–2.1) 0.8 (0.6–1.2)
Time for having TB symptoms d (2,484)
  < 2 weeks ref ref 0.00
  ≥ 2 weeks 2.1 (1.7–2.5) 1.4 (1.1–1.8)
Previously treated (2484)
 No ref ref 0.05
 Yes 1.8 (1.3–2.4) 1.4 (1.0–2.0)
Symptoms with cough (2463)
 No ref ref < 0.01
 Yes 3.0 (2.5–3.6) 2.2 (1.8–2.8)
Symptoms with blood sputum (2463)
 No ref ref 0.04
 Yes 1.9 (1.4–2.8) 1.5 (1.0–2.2)
Cavitation on chest X-ray (2445)
 No ref ref < 0.01
 Yes 4.4 (3.4–5.6) 3.3 (2.5–4.3)
Bilateral lung lobes affected (2445)
 No ref ref < 0.01
 Yes 2.5 (2.1–3.0) 1.7 (1.4–2.2)
Diabetes comorbidity (2303)
 No ref ref 0.06
 Yes 2.0 (1.5–2.8) 1.4 (1.0–2.0)
Extra-pulmonary TB concomitance (2303)
 No ref ref 0.20
 Yes 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 1.3 (0.9–1.8)
  1. a Totally 30 were age < 15, among whom 20 were bacteriologically negative and 10 were bacteriologically positive. b Occupations in food industry, public transportation, public service attendants, and factory workers. c Designated TB hospital with inpatients. d Defined as the period from symptoms onset to the first arrival in TB facilities