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Table 1 Formative Evaluation Stages

From: Implementation and evaluation of a care bundle for prevention of non-ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (nvHAP) – a mixed-methods study protocol for a hybrid type 2 effectiveness-implementation trial

Stage Aims Concretization in current study
1. Developmental evaluation, “diagnostic analysis” Assess levels of current practices and their determinants
Prospectively identify potential barriers and facilitators to implementation
During the baseline period “Action Plan” interview with local implementation teams, the current state of practice for each nvHAP bundle measure will be assessed and determinants of current behaviour discussed.
An “Action Plan” of promotional activities will be established, taking into account potential barriers and facilitators.
2. Implementation-focused evaluation Assess discrepancies between established implementation plan and its operationalization
Continually identify barriers and facilitators to implementation
Refine implementation plan
During the “Action Plan” interview with local implementation teams following the implementation period, the previously established “Action Plan” will be revisited and actual vs. planned interventions assessed. Refinements to the action plan will be made as needed taking into account newly identified barriers and facilitators.
3. Progress-focused evaluation Monitor and inform stakeholders about progress towards goals During the Intervention period, feedback about nvHAP outcomes and process indicators will be fed back to local implementation teams.
4. Interpretive evaluation Triangulate qualitative and quantitative data to enhance understanding of implementation results Upon project completion, qualitative findings will be used to illuminate quantitative results and inform guidance about how the nvHAP bundle can best be implemented in further settings.