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Table 3 Summary of previous rickettsial infection cases, Ontario, Canada (2013–2018)

From: Assessing human exposure to spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae in Ontario, Canada (2013–2018): a retrospective, cross-sectional study

Variable Spotted fever group rickettsiae Typhus group rickettsiae Unspecified Rickettsia infection
Total cases, n 183 89 308
Female, n (%) 93 (50.8) 47 (52.8) 157 (50.9)
Age, mean ± SE (range) 41.3 ± 1.37 (3–87) 44.9 ± 2.11 (2–85) 43.8 ± 1.08 (<  1–89)
IFA IgG titer, n
 1:64 154 75 n/a
 1:128 22 6 n/a
 1:256 7 8 n/a
IFA SFGR/TGR IgG titers (URI)
 1:64/1:64 n/a n/a 154
 1:64/1:128 n/a n/a 9
 1:64/1:256 n/a n/a 1
 1:128/1:64 n/a n/a 42
 1:128/1:128 n/a n/a 50
 1:128/1:256 n/a n/a 8
 1:256/1:64 n/a n/a 6
 1:256/1:128 n/a n/a 12
 1:256/1:256 n/a n/a 25
 1:512/1:512 n/a n/a 1
Year of onset, n
 2013 9 12 19
 2014 6 19 22
 2015 10 20 33
 2016 12 20 36
 2017 45 14 92
 2018 101 4 106
Signs and symptoms, n (%)a
None reported 123 (65.1) 65 (73.0) 199 (64.6)
 Headache 30 (46.2) 5 (20.8) 53 (39.8)
 Fatigue 19 (29.2) 4 (16.7) 33 (24.8)
 Arthralgia/arthritis 8 (12.3) 1 (4.2) 7 (5.3)
 Fever 7 (10.8) 6 (25.0) 16 (12.0)
 Gastrointestinal complaints 6 (9.2) 2 (8.3) 5 (3.8)
 Tick bite 4 (6.2) 1 (4.2) 5 (3.8)
 Rash (not described) 2 (3.1) 1 (4.2) 6 (4.5)
 Respiratory complaints 1 (1.5) 5 (20.8) 8 (6.0)
 Elevated liver enzymes 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Dizziness 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Anemia 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Anxiety 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Encephalitis/meningitis 1 (1.5) 2 (8.3) 2 (1.5)
 Myalgia/body aches 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.3)
 Rash (vesicular) 1 (1.5) 1 (4.2) 2 (1.5)
 Rash (maculopapular) 1 (1.5) 3 (12.5) 2 (1.5)
 Jaundice 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8)
 Malaise/unwell 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (3.0)
 Chills 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8)
  1. Abbreviations: IFA immunofluorescent assay, n/a not applicable, SFGR spotted fever group rickettsiae, TGR typhus group rickettsiae
  2. a Cases reporting at least one sign or symptom: SFGR, n = 60; TGR, n = 24; URI, n = 109. Some cases have > 1 sign or symptom. Denominator is based on number of cases with at least one sign or symptom reported on the requisition